A liquid solution in which the solvent is water.
AcqueousSolution
ISQDimensionlessQuantity
http://dbpedia.org/page/Dimensionless_quantity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01742
A quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned and with a corresponding unit of measurement in the SI of the unit one.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimensionless_quantity
Phase heterogenous mixture may share the same state of matter.
For example, immiscibile liquid phases (e.g. oil and water) constitute a mixture whose phases are clearly separated but share the same state of matter.
PhaseHeterogeneousMixture
A mixture in which more than one phases of matter cohexists.
Lux
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LUX
Measurement unit for illuminance.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03651
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
/
iupacEntry
https://goldbook.iupac.org/
DOI to corresponding concept in IUPAC
The velocity depends on the choice of the reference frame. Proper transformation between frames must be used: Galilean for nonrelativistic description, Lorentzian for relativistic description.
 IEC, note 2
Vector quantity giving the rate of change of a position vector.
 ISO 800003
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130132
3‑10.1
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The velocity is related to a point described by its position vector. The point may localize a particle, or be attached to any other object such as a body or a wave.
 IEC, note 1
Velocity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Velocity
Zepto
hasContactWith
hasIcon
T3 L+3 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Resistivity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05316
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity
ElectricResistivity
Electric field strength divided by the current density.
Resistivity
CapacitanceDimension
1
A material that is synthesized within a manufacturing process.
EngineeredMaterial
A relation that isolates a proper part that extends itself in time through a portion of the lifetime whole.
hasSpatioTemporalPart
Real
Length is a nonnegative additive quantity attributed to a onedimensional object in space.
Extend of a spatial dimension.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Length
Length
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03498
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130119
Laplacian
FrequencyDimension
Nano
1E21
T0 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Extent of a surface.
Area
http://dbpedia.org/page/Area
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Area
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00429
omMatch
https://enterpriseintegrationlab.github.io/icity/OM/doc/indexen.html
https://github.com/HajoRijgersberg/OM
IRI to corresponding concept in the Ontology of units of Measure
"Real scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same kind can be compared to express the ratio of the second quantity to the first one as a number"
ISO 800001
A 'Quantity' that stands for the standard reference magnitude of a specific class of measurement processes, defined and adopted by convention or by law.
The numerical quantity value of the 'MeasurementUnit' is conventionally 1 and does not appear.
Quantitative measurement results are expressed as a multiple of the 'MeasurementUnit'.
"Unit symbols are mathematical entities and not abbreviations."
"Symbols for units are treated as mathematical entities. In expressing the value of a quantity as the product of a numerical value and a unit, both the numerical value and the unit may be treated by the ordinary rules of algebra."
https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/sibrochure/SIBrochure9EN.pdf
While the SI brochure treats 'MeasurementUnit' as a 'PhysicalQuantity', in the EMMO this is not possible since the latter always has two direct parts, a 'Numerical' and a 'MeasurementUnit', while the former a single 'Symbol'.
SI distinguishes between a quantity (an abstract concept) and the quantity value (a number and a reference). The EMMO, following strict nominalism, considers a SI quantity as a SI quantity value, collapsing the two concepts into one: the 'Quantity'.
So, for the EMMO the symbol "kg" is not a physical quantity but a 'MeasurementUnit', while the string "1 kg" is 'Physical Quantity'.
MeasurementUnit
Unit of AtomicNumber
Unit for dimensionless units that cannot be expressed as a 'FractionUnit'.
PureNumberUnit
http://dbpedia.org/page/Energy
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
Energy
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Energy
Energy is often defined as "ability of a system to perform work", but it might be misleading since is not necessarily available to do work.
Suspension
An heterogeneous mixture that contains coarsly dispersed particles (no Tyndall effect), that generally tend to separate in time to the dispersion medium phase.
Suspensions show no significant effect on light.
Kelvin
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03374
The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Boltzmann constant k to be 1.380649×10−23 when expressed in the unit J K−1, which is equal to kg m2 s−2 K−1, where the kilogram, metre and second are defined in terms of h, c and ∆νCs.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/K
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Length per unit time.
Speed in the absolute value of the velocity.
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/Speed
Speed
http://dbpedia.org/page/Speed
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05852
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Speed
Short enlightening explanation of a concept.
elucidation
Emanuele Ghedini
EMMC ASBL
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Access, DE
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
1.0.0alpha2
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Gerhard Goldbeck
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Jesper Friis
Georg Schmitz
University of Bologna, IT
Adham Hashibon
1E+6
University of Bologna, IT
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Jesper Friis
1.0.0alpha2
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Emanuele Ghedini
Access, DE
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Adham Hashibon
Georg Schmitz
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
EMMC ASBL
Gerhard Goldbeck
EMMC ASBL
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
1.0.0alpha2
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna, IT
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Jesper Friis
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Gerhard Goldbeck
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Adham Hashibon
Access, DE
Georg Schmitz
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/InternalEnergy
ThermodynamicEnergy
InternalEnergy
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Internal_energy
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.I03103
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130420
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/InternalEnergy
A state quantity equal to the difference between the total energy of a system and the sum of the macroscopic kinetic and potential energies of the system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04778
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130348
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PotentialEnergy
The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or orientation in a potential field.
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/PotentialEnergy
http://dbpedia.org/page/Potential_energy
PotentialEnergy
ElementaryParticle
Only a subset of elementary particles from the Standard Model are here included for the sake of simplicity.
The union of all classes categorizing elementary particles according to the Standard Model.
T+4 L3 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
Measure for how the polarization of a material is affected by the application of an external electric field.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04507
http://dbpedia.org/page/Permittivity
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/Permittivity
Permittivity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Permittivity
LiquidAerosol
An aerosol composed of liquid droplets in air or another gas.
″
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Access, DE
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Emanuele Ghedini
1.0.0alpha2
University of Bologna, IT
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
Jesper Friis
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Gerhard Goldbeck
EMMC ASBL
Degree is a measurement of plane angle, defined by representing a full rotation as 360 degrees.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG
http://dbpedia.org/page/Degree_(angle)
Degree
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01560
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two areas.
Unit for solid angle.
AreaFractionUnit
Synthesis of materials, the preparation of a cake.
ContinuumManufacturing
A manufacturing process whose product is the result of the combination of more substances.
1.0.0alpha2
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
EMMC ASBL
Georg Schmitz
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Gerhard Goldbeck
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Jesper Friis
University of Bologna, IT
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Adham Hashibon
Mayonnaise, milk.
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (a liquidliquid heterogeneous mixture).
Emulsion
°C
A measurement unit symbol that do not have a metric prefix as a direct spatial part.
NonPrefixedUnit
CGSUnit
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centimetre%E2%80%93gram%E2%80%93second_system_of_units
CGS is a variant of the metric system.
The centimetre–gram–second (CGS) system of units.
MeasurementInstrument
PhysicalQuantity
Measurement units of quantities of the same quantity dimension may be designated by the same name and symbol even when the quantities are not of the same kind.
For example, joule per kelvin and J/K are respectively the name and symbol of both a measurement unit of heat capacity and a measurement unit of entropy, which are generally not considered to be quantities of the same kind.
However, in some cases special measurement unit names are restricted to be used with quantities of specific kind only.
For example, the measurement unit ‘second to the power minus one’ (1/s) is called hertz (Hz) when used for frequencies and becquerel (Bq) when used for activities of radionuclides.
As another example, the joule (J) is used as a unit of energy, but never as a unit of moment of force, i.e. the newton metre (N · m).
A 'Mathematical' entity that is made of a 'Numeral' and a 'MeasurementUnit' defined by a physical law, connected to a physical entity through a model perspective. Measurement is done according to the same model.
In the same system of quantities, dim ρB = ML−3 is the quantity dimension of mass concentration of component B, and ML−3 is also the quantity dimension of mass density, ρ.
ISO 800001
— quantities of the same kind have the same quantity dimension,
— quantities of different quantity dimensions are always of different kinds, and
— quantities having the same quantity dimension are not necessarily of the same kind.
ISO 800001
Measured or simulated 'physical propertiy's are always defined by a physical law, connected to a physical entity through a model perspective and measurement is done according to the same model.
Systems of units suggests that this is the correct approach, since except for the fundamental units (length, time, charge) every other unit is derived by mathematical relations between these fundamental units, implying a physical laws or definitions.
A function defined using functional notation.
FunctionDefinition
y = f(x)
http://dbpedia.org/page/Minute
NonSI time unit defined as 60 seconds.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MIN
Minute
PrefixedUnit
A measurement unit that is made of a metric prefix and a unit symbol.
VolumeDimension
T+1 L+1 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
An electric dipole, vector quantity of magnitude equal to the product of the positive charge and the distance between the charges and directed from the negative charge to the positive charge.
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/ElectricDipoleMoment
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211136
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricDipoleMoment
ElectricDipoleMoment
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electric_dipole_moment
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01929
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211135
∇
h
Experiment
An experiment is a process that is intended to replicate a physical phenomenon in a controlled environment.
LuminousIntensityDimension
Minus
Gerhard Goldbeck
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Adham Hashibon
Access, DE
Georg Schmitz
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
EMMC ASBL
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Jesper Friis
1.0.0alpha2
University of Bologna, IT
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
http://dbpedia.org/page/Neper
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neper
Neper
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04106
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NP
Unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference, which are defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of power or fieldtype quantities.
The value of a ratio in nepers is given by `ln(x1/x2)` where `x1` and `x2` are the values of interest (amplitudes), and ln is the natural logarithm. When the values are quadratic in the amplitude (e.g. power), they are first linearised by taking the square root before the logarithm is taken, or equivalently the result is halved.
Wikipedia
Neutron
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Density
Mass per volume.
T0 L3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Density
http://dbpedia.org/page/Density
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01590
SymbolicComposition
A symbolic entity made of other symbolic entities according to a specific spatial configuration.
This class collects individuals that represents arrangements of strings, or other symbolic compositions, without any particular predifined arrangement schema.
Software
A language object that follows syntactic rules of a programming language.
Mathematical
The class of general mathematical symbolic objects respecting mathematical syntactic rules.
2 * x^2 + x + 3
Polynomial
T+2 L1 M1 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_flux_quantum) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
Inverse of the magnetic flux quantum.
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?kjos
JosephsonConstant
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/JosephsonConstant
Second
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05513
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SEC
The second, symbol s, is the SI unit of time. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the caesium frequency ∆νCs, the unperturbed groundstate hyperfine transition frequency of the caesium 133 atom, to be 9192631770 when expressed in the unit Hz, which is equal to s−1.
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Jesper Friis
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Access, DE
1.0.0alpha2
Adham Hashibon
Georg Schmitz
EMMC ASBL
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Emanuele Ghedini
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Gerhard Goldbeck
University of Bologna, IT
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Strain
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/Strain
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Strain
Change of the relative positions of parts of a body, excluding a displacement of the body as a whole.
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130357
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06634
Volt
Measurement unit for voltage.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/V
y
Ångström is not mentioned in the SI system and deprecated by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM).
Dispite of that, it is often used in the natural sciences and technology.
Angstrom
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/ANGSTROM
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N00350
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angstrom
http://dbpedia.org/page/%C3%85ngstr%C3%B6m
Measure of length defined as 1e10 metres.
Ångström
2
A unique string describing the physical dimensionality of a physical quantity.
See the comments of PhysicalDimension for a description of this "regex" string.
physicalDimension
Causality is a topological property between connected items.
connected
Items being connected means that there is a topological contact or "interaction" between them.
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
ProtonMass
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04914
The rest mass of a proton.
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?mp
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ProtonMass
A SI base or special unit with a metric prefix.
SIPrefixedUnit
The presence of the prefix makes this units noncoherent with SI system.
hasQuantityValue
Relates a quantity to its reference unit through spatial direct parthood.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Entropy
http://dbpedia.org/page/Entropy
Logarithmic measure of the number of available states of a system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02149
Entropy
May also be referred to as a measure of order of a system.
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/Torque
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The effectiveness of a force to produce rotation about an axis, measured by the product of the force and the perpendicular distance from the line of action of the force to the axis.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Torque
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Torque
Even though torque has the same physical dimension as energy, it is not of the same kind and can not be measured with energy units like joule or electron volt.
Torque
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06400
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130326
min
SI coherent measurement unit for torque.
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/newtonMetre
Note that the physical dimension is the same as for Joule.
NewtonMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NM
example
Illustrative example of how the entity is used.
SICoherentDerivedUnit
m/s
kg/m^3
A SI derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of SI base units is one.
This class collects all units that are products or powers of SI base or SI special units only.
ObjectiveProperty
A 'Property' that is determined by each 'Observer' following a well defined 'Observation' procedure through a specific perception channel.
This class refers to what is commonly known as physical property, i.e. a measurable property of physical system, whether is quantifiable or not.
The word objective does not mean that each observation will provide the same results. It means that the observation followed a well defined procedure.
A unit symbol that stands for a derived unit.
Special units are semiotic shortcuts to more complex composed symbolic objects.
Pa stands for N/m2
J stands for N m
SpecialUnit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GRAY
Gray
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02696
Measurement unit for absorbed dose.
Kilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KiloGM
The kilogram, symbol kg, is the SI unit of mass. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Planck constant h to be 6.62607015×10−34 when expressed in the unit J s, which is equal to kg m2 s−1, where the metre and the second are defined in terms of c and ∆νCs.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03391
An 'Physical' that is used as sign ("semeion" in greek) that stands for another 'Physical' through an semiotic process.
According to Peirce, 'Sign' includes three subcategories:
 symbols: that stand for an object through convention
 indeces: that stand for an object due to causal continguity
 icon: that stand for an object due to similitudes e.g. in shape or composition
A 'Sign' can have temporaldirectparts which are 'Sign' themselves.
A 'Sign' usually have 'sign' spatial direct parts only up to a certain elementary semiotic level, in which the part is only a 'Physical' and no more a 'Sign' (i.e. it stands for nothing). This elementary semiotic level is peculiar to each particular system of signs (e.g. text, painting).
Just like an 'Elementary' in the 'Physical' branch, each 'Sign' branch should have an atomistic mereological part.
Sign
A novel is made of chapters, paragraphs, sentences, words and characters (in a direct parthood mereological hierarchy).
Each of them are 'sign's.
A character can be the atomistic 'sign' for the class of texts.
The horizontal segment in the character "A" is direct part of "A" but it is not a 'sign' itself.
For plain text we can propose the ASCII symbols, for math the fundamental math symbols.
SolidSolidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of solid in a solid continuum phase.
Granite, sand, dried concrete.
RybergConstant
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?ryd
http://dbpedia.org/page/Rydberg_constant
The Rydberg constant represents the limiting value of the highest wavenumber (the inverse wavelength) of any photon that can be emitted from the hydrogen atom, or, alternatively, the wavenumber of the lowestenergy photon capable of ionizing the hydrogen atom from its ground state.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05430
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/RydbergConstant
A standalone atom that has no net charge.
NeutralAtom
1
SolidAerosol
An aerosol composed of fine solid particles in air or another gas.
Liquid
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06684
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Work
http://dbpedia.org/page/Heat
Product of force and displacement.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Work_(physics)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Work
hasSpatioTemporalDirectPart
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Reactance
The opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.
Reactance
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricReactance
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_reactance
Measurement unit for catalytic activity.
Katal
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KAT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03372
CurrentDensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricCurrentDensity
T0 L2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01928
Electric current divided by the crosssectional area it is passing through.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Current_density
The 'semiosis' process of interpreting a 'physical' and provide a complec sign, 'theory' that stands for it and explain it to another interpreter.
Theorization
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Jesper Friis
Adham Hashibon
Georg Schmitz
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
University of Bologna, IT
Gerhard Goldbeck
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
EMMC ASBL
1.0.0alpha2
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Radioactivity
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Decays per unit time.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificActivity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00114
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03639
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LM
Lumen
Measurement unit for luminous flux.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SV
Sievert
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalent_dose
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05658
Measurement unit for equivalent doseof ionizing radiation.
Sievert is derived from absorbed dose, but takes into account the biological effectiveness of the radiation, which is dependent on the radiation type and energy.
Electron
The class of individuals that stand for electrons elemntary particles.
V
Sv
MathematicalSymbol
Steradian
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05971
Dimensionless measurement unit for solid angle.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SR
Unknown
Velocity, for the NavierStokes equation.
The dependent variable for which an equation has been written.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/H
Measurement unit for electrical inductance.
Henry
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02782
bel is used to express the ratio of one value of a power or field quantity to another, on a logarithmic scale, the logarithmic quantity being called the power level or field level, respectively.
One bel is defined as `1⁄2 ln(10) neper`.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decibel
Bel
Today decibel (one tenth of a bel) is commonly used instead of bel.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/B
Unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference.
Pressure
T2 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04819
The force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Pressure
http://dbpedia.org/page/Pressure
Hecto
°
Adham Hashibon
Georg Schmitz
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Jesper Friis
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
University of Bologna, IT
Gerhard Goldbeck
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
EMMC ASBL
1.0.0alpha2
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
Access, DE
1.0.0alpha2
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Jesper Friis
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
University of Bologna, IT
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
EMMC ASBL
1
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00791
The derivative of the electric charge of a system with respect to the electric potential.
T+4 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Capacitance
ElectricCapacitance
http://dbpedia.org/page/Capacitance
Capacitance
1E+2
The charge of an electron.
ElectronCharge
The negative of ElementaryCharge.
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01982
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:80000:1:ed1:v1:en:sec:3.1
InternationalSystemOfQuantity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Quantities
Quantities declared under the ISO 80000.
A language object that follows syntactic rules of a an idiom (e.g. english, italian).
Idiomatic
a
MaterialLaw
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Access, DE
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
1.0.0alpha2
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Emanuele Ghedini
Georg Schmitz
Gerhard Goldbeck
University of Bologna, IT
Adham Hashibon
Jesper Friis
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
EMMC ASBL
The generic EMMO semiotical relation.
semiotical
In EMMO version 1.0.0alpha2, physical quantities used the hasReferenceUnit object property to relate them to their units via physical dimensionality. This was simplified in 1.0.0alpha3 in order to make reasoning faster.
The restriction (e.g. for the physical quantity Length)
Length hasReferenceUnit only (hasPhysicsDimension only LengthDimension)
was in 1.0.0alpha3 changed to
Length hasPhysicsDimension some LengthDimension
Likewise were the universal restrictions on the corresponding unit changed to excistential. E.g.
Metre hasPhysicsDimension only LengthDimension
was changed to
Metre hasPhysicsDimension some LengthDimension
The label of this class was also changed from PhysicsDimension to PhysicalDimension.
Relates the physical quantity to its unit through spatial direct parthood.
hasReferenceUnit
A 'Physical' with no 'Massive' parts.
Vacuum
Quark
The class of individuals that stand for quarks elementary particles.
au
The void concept is paramount for the representation of physical systems according to quantum theory.
From Latin vacuus, “empty”.
Void
A 'Item' that has no 'Physical' parts.
viscosity in the NavierStokes equation
Parameter
A 'variable' whose value is assumed to be known independently from the equation, but whose value is not explicitated in the equation.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFlux
http://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_flux
Measure of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field.
MagneticFlux
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03684
T2 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
Gerhard Goldbeck
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
Access, DE
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
EMMC ASBL
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Jesper Friis
1.0.0alpha2
University of Bologna, IT
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
A 'Graphical' that stands for a real world object that shows a recognizable pictorial pattern without being necessarily associated to a symbolic language.
A drawing of a cat.
A circle on a paper sheet.
The Mona Lisa.
Pictorial
A reference unit provided by a measurement procedure.
ProcedureUnit
Rockwell C hardness of a given sample (150 kg load): 43.5HRC(150 kg)
The thermal conductivity of a copper sample in my laboratory can be assumed to be the conductivity that appears in the vendor specification. This value has been obtained by measurement of a sample which is not the one I have in my laboratory. This conductivity value is then a conventional quantitiative property assigned to my sample through a semiotic process in which no actual measurement is done by my laboratory.
If I don't believe the vendor, then I can measure the actual thermal conductivity. I then perform a measurement process that semiotically assign another value for the conductivity, which is a measured property, since is part of a measurement process.
Then I have two different physical quantities that are properties thanks to two different semiotic processes.
A property that is associated to an object by convention, or assumption.
A quantitative property attributed by agreement to a quantity for a given purpose.
ConventionalQuantitativeProperty
hasPart
MagneticFluxDensity
Strength of the magnetic field.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03686
T2 L0 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
Often denoted B.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_field
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFluxDensity
http://dbpedia.org/page/Unified_atomic_mass_unit
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01514
One dalton is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state.
Dalton
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/Dalton
B
MolarConcentration
Molarity
Concentration
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AmountOfSubstanceConcentrationOfB
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00295
T0 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
AmountConcentration
http://dbpedia.org/page/Molar_concentration
The amount of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture.
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?e
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElementaryCharge
The magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron. It defines the base unit Ampere in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02032
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElementaryCharge
http://dbpedia.org/page/Elementary_charge
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Elementary_charge) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
University of Bologna, IT
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Jesper Friis
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Gerhard Goldbeck
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
EMMC ASBL
Emanuele Ghedini
1.0.0alpha2
Access, DE
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Measured in cd/m². Not to confuse with Illuminance, which is measured in lux (cd sr/m²).
T0 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Luminance
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Luminance
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03640
a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction.
Luminance
Letter
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/squareMetre
SI coherent measurement unit for area.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2
SquareMetre
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Jesper Friis
1.0.0alpha2
Georg Schmitz
University of Bologna, IT
Adham Hashibon
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Gerhard Goldbeck
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Emanuele Ghedini
EMMC ASBL
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Access, DE
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02866
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HR
Measure of time defined as 3600 seconds.
Hour
1.0.0alpha2
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
EMMC ASBL
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
SINTEF, NO
Emanuele Ghedini
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Gerhard Goldbeck
University of Bologna, IT
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Jesper Friis
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Access, DE
The class of individuals that stand for gluons elementary particles.
Gluon
While this particle is only supposed to exist, the EMMO approach to classical and quantum systems represents fields as made of particles.
For this reason graviton is an useful concept to homogenize the approach between different fields.
The class of individuals that stand for gravitons elementary particles.
Graviton
AbsorbedDoseDimension
SIBaseUnit
The base units in the SI system.
https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/sibrochure/SIBrochure9EN.pdf
Universe
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Frequency
Number of periods per time interval.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Frequency
Frequency
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.FT07383
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Resistance
Resistance
ElectricResistance
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01936
Measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through a material.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistance_and_conductance
Inverse of 'ElectricalConductance'.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DAY
Day
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01527
http://dbpedia.org/page/Day
A measure of time defined as 86 400 seconds.
µ
A 'Quantum' is the most fundamental subclass of 'Item', since its individuals stand for the smallest possible selfconnected 4D real world objects.
The quantum concept recalls the fact that there is lower epistemological limit to our knowledge of the universe, related to the uncertainity principle.
For a physics based ontology the 'Quantum' can stand for the smallest identifiable portion of spacetime defined by the Planck limit in length (1.616e35 m) and time (5.39e44 s).
However, the quantum mereotopology approach is not restricted only to physics. For example, in a manpower management ontology, a 'Quantum' can stand for an hour (time) of a worker (space) activity.
A 'Quantum' stands for a 4D real world object.
A quantum is the EMMO mereological 4D atomic entity.
To avoid confusion with the concept of atom coming from physics, we will use the expression quantum mereology, instead of atomistic mereology.
From Latin quantum (plural quanta) "as much as, so much as;", introduced in physics directly from Latin by Max Planck, 1900.
The class of 'EMMO' individuals that stand for real world objects that can't be further divided in time nor in space.
Quantum
ArcMinute
MinuteOfArc
Measure of plane angle defined as 1/60 or a degree.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/ARCMIN
T+1 L+1 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
'acoustical' refers to the perception mechanism of the observer that can occur through a microphone, a ear.
Acoustical
A 'Perceptual' which stands for a real world object whose spatiotemporal pattern makes it identifiable by an observer as a sound.
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Spray
A suspension of liquid droplets dispersed in a gas through an atomization process.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Momentum
http://dbpedia.org/page/Momentum
T1 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Product of mass and velocity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M04007
Momentum
1E+12
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03402
http://dbpedia.org/page/Kinetic_energy
KineticEnergy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/KineticEnergy
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130349
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/KineticEnergy
The energy of an object due to its motion.
Measurement unit for electric charge.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01365
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/C
Coulomb
T+3 L1 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
SubMultipleUnit
Measurement unit obtained by dividing a given measurement unit by an integer greater than one.
ElectricCharge
Charge
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01923
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electric_charge
The physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricCharge
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
We know real world entities through observation/perception.
A nonperceivable real world entity does not exist (or it exists on a plane of existance that has no intersection with us and we can say nothing about it).
Perception/observation of a real wolrd entity occurs when the entity stimulate an observer in a peculiar way through a well defined perception channel.
For this reason each property is related to a specific observation process which involves a specific observer with its own perception mechanisms.
The observation process (e.g. a look, a photo shot, a measurement) is performed by an observer (e.g. you, a camera, an instrument) through a specific perception mechanism (e.g. retina impression, CMOS excitation, piezoelectric sensor activation) and involves an observed entity.
An observation is a semiotic process, since it stimulate an interpretant within the interpreter who can communicate the perception result to other interpreters through a sign which is the property.
Property subclasses are specializations that depend on the type of observation processes.
e.g. the property 'colour' is related to a process that involves emission or interaction of photon and an observer who can perceive electromagnetic radiation in the visible frequency range.
Properties usually relies on symbolic systems (e.g. for colour it can be palette or RGB).
A 'Perceptual' referring to a specific code that is used as 'Conventional' sign to represent an 'Object' according to a specific interaction mechanism by an 'Observer'.
(A property is always a partial representation of an 'Object' since it reflects the 'Object' capability to be part of a specific 'Observation' process)
Let's define the class 'colour' as the subclass of the properties that involve photon emission and an electromagnetic radiation sensible observer.
An individual C of this class 'colour' can be defined be declaring the process individual (e.g. daylight illumination) and the observer (e.g. my eyes)
Stating that an entity E hasProperty C, we mean that it can be observed by such setup of process + observer (i.e. observed by my eyes under daylight).
This definition can be generalized by using a generic human eye, so that the observer can be a generic human.
This can be used in material characterization, to define exactly the type of measurement done, including the instrument type.
Property
A 'Property' is a sort of name or label that we put upon objects that interact with an observer in the same specific way.
e.g. "hot" objects are objects that interact with an observer through a perception mechanism aimed to perceive an heat source.
Hardness is a subclass of properties.
Vickers hardness is a subclass of hardness that involves the procedures and instruments defined by the standard hardness test.
ExactConstant
Physical constant used to define a unit system. Hence, when expressed in that unit system they have an exact value with no associated uncertainty.
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two masses.
Unit for mass fraction.
MassFractionUnit
Da
2x+3
AlgebricExpression
An expression that has parts only integer constants, variables, and the algebraic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation by an exponent that is a rational number)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00787
The candela, symbol cd, is the SI unit of luminous intensity in a given direction. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the luminous efficacy of monochromatic radiation of frequency 540×1012 Hz, Kcd, to be 683 when expressed in the unit lm W−1, which is equal to cd sr W−1, or cd sr kg−1 m−2 s3, where the kilogram, metre and second are defined in terms of h, c and ∆νCs.
Candela
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CD
A matter individual that stands for a real world object representing an amount of a physical substance (or mixture of substances) in different states of matter or phases.
A instance of a material (e.g. nitrogen) can represent different states of matter. The fact that the individual also belongs to other classes (e.g. Gas) would reveal the actual form in which the material is found.
Material
Material usually means some definite kind, quality, or quantity of matter, especially as intended for use.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Mass_fraction_(chemistry)
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/MassFraction
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassFraction
MassFraction
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03722
Mass of a constituent divided by the total mass of all constituents in the mixture.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass
AtomicMass
The mass of an atom in the ground state.
Since the nucleus account for nearly all of the total mass of atoms (with the electrons and nuclear binding energy making minor contributions), the atomic mass measured in Da has nearly the same value as the mass number.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00496
The atomic mass is often expressed as an average of the commonly found isotopes.
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MetricPrefix
Dimensionless multiplicative unit prefix.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_prefix
Becquerel
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQ
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.B00624
Unit for radioactive activity.
Radioactive decays per second.
hasTemporalPart
A relation that isolate a proper part that covers the total spatial extension of a whole within a time interval.
Litre
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03594
A nonSI unit of volume defined as 1 cubic decimetre (dm3),
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/L
URL to corresponding Wikipedia entry.
https://www.wikipedia.org/
wikipediaEntry
A 'Physical' that possesses some 'Massive' parts.
Matter
d
S
A 'Physical' which is a tessellation of spatial direct parts.
There is no change in granularity or cardinality of parts within a state.
The use of spatial direct parthood in state definition means that a state cannot overlap in space another state that is direct part of the same whole.
State
The definition of 'State' implies that its spatial direct parts (i.e. 'physicals') are not gained or lost during its temporal extension (they exist from the left to the right side of the time interval), so that the cardinality of spatial direct parts in a 'State' is constant.
This does not mean that there cannot be a change in the internal structure of the 'State' direct parts. It means only that this change must not affect the existence of the direct part itself.
There is no change in granularity or cardinality of direct parts of a 'State'.
The use of spatial direct parthood in 'State' definition means that a 'State' cannot overlap in space another 'State'.
The usefulness of 'State' is that it makes it possible to describe the evolution in time of an 'Existent' in terms of series of 'State's that can take into account the disappearance or appearance of parts within a 'Physical'.
A 'State' is a recognizable granularity level of matter, in the sense that its direct parts do not appear or disappear within its lifetime as it can be for a generic 'Existent'.
e.g. the existent in my glass is declared at t = t_start as made of two direct parts: the ice and the water. It will continue to exists as state as long as the ice is completely melt at t = t_end. The new state will be completely made of water. Between t_start and t_end there is an exchange of molecules between the ice and the water, but this does not affect the existence of the two states.
If we partition the existent in my glass as ice surrounded by several molecules (we do not use the object water as direct part) then the appearance of a molecule coming from the ice will cause a state to end and another state to begin.
Direct partitions declaration is a choice of the ontologist that choses the classes to be used as direct parts, according to its own world view.
A 'State' can always be direct partitioned in 'Elementary's and 'Void' or 'Physical'.
e.g. the water in my glass can be seen as a single object without declaring direct parts, or as made of H2O molecules direct parts.
T0 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Avogadro_constant) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
AvogadroConstant
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?na
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00543
The number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
It defines the base unit mole in the SI system.
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/AvogadroConstant
Gas, liquid, plasma,
Fluid
A continuum that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure.
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
Smoke is a solid aerosol made of particles emitted when a material undergoes combustion or pyrolysis.
Smoke
Plus
T2 L+1 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?mu0
The value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ElectromagneticPermeabilityOfVacuum
VacuumMagneticPermeability
The DBpedia and UIPAC Gold Book definitions (http://dbpedia.org/page/Vacuum_permeability, https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04504) are outdated since May 20, 2019. It is now a measured constant.
Nucleon
A continuum characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume, that retains its shape and density when not confined.
Solid
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_physical_constants
PhysicalConstant
Physical constants are categorised into "exact" and measured constants.
With "exact" constants, we refer to physical constants that have an exact numerical value after the revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019.
Watt
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06656
Measurement unit for power.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/W
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
Dispersion
A material in which distributed particles of one phase are dispersed in a different continuous phase.
1E+3
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00353
http://dbpedia.org/page/Angular_momentum
AngularMomentum
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularMomentum
T1 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Measure of the extent and direction an object rotates about a reference point.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HA
http://dbpedia.org/page/Hectare
Hectare
A nonSI metric unit of area defined as the square with 100metre sides.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hectare
SI distinguishes between a quantity (an abstract concept) and the quantity value (a number and a reference).
The EMMO, following strict nominalism, denies the existence of abstract objects and then collapses the two concepts of SI quantity and SI quantity value into a single one: the 'Quantity'.
So, for the EMMO the symbol "kg" is not a physical quantity but simply a 'Symbolic' object categorized as a 'MeasurementUnit'.
While the string "1 kg" is a 'Physical Quantity'.
6.8 m
0.9 km
8 K
6 MeV
43.5 HRC(150 kg)
A quantity is not necessarily a property, since it is possible to write "10 kg", without assigning this quantity to a specific object.
However, a quantitative property is always a quantity.
Referred as Quantity Value in International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
A symbolic that has parts a reference unit and a numerical object separated by a space expressing the value of a quantitative property (expressed as the product of the numerical and the unit).
Quantity
ElectricConductanceDimension
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.I02941
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Illuminance
T0 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Illuminance
The total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.
Illuminance
H
PositionVector
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130312
In the usual geometrical threedimensional space, position vectors are quantities of the dimension length.
 IEC
Vector r characterizing a point P in a point space with a given origin point O.
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Position
Position vectors are socalled bounded vectors, i.e. their magnitude and direction depend on the particular coordinate system used.
 ISO 800003
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermodynamicTemperature
http://dbpedia.org/page/Thermodynamic_temperature
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature. It is defined by the third law of thermodynamics in which the theoretically lowest temperature is the null or zero point.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06321
ThermodynamicTemperature
Geometrical
A 'graphical' aimed to represent a geometrical concept.
A 'geometrical' stands for real world objects that express a geometrical concept.
This can be achieved in many different ways. For example, a line can be expressed by:
a) an equation like y=mx+q, which is both an 'equation' and a 'geometrical'
b) a line drawn with a pencil on a paper, which is simply a 'graphical' object
c) a set of axioms, when the properties of a line are inferred by the interpreter reading them, that are both 'graphical' and also 'formula'
The case a) is a geometrical and mathematical, b) is geometrical and pictorial, while c) is geometrical and a composition of idiomatic strings.
MassDimension
0manifold
"Property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has no magnitude."
"A nominal property has a value, which can be expressed in words, by alphanumerical codes, or by other means."
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
NominalProperty
An 'ObjectiveProperty' that cannot be quantified.
CFC is a 'sign' that stands for the fact that the morphology of atoms composing the microstructure of an entity is predominantly Cubic Face Centered
A color is a nominal property.
Sex of a human being.
Base quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Quantities
ISQBaseQuantity
Three subtypes of icon are possible:
(a) the image, which depends on a simple quality (e.g. picture)
(b) the diagram, whose internal relations, mainly dyadic or so taken, represent by analogy the relations in something (e.g. math formula, geometric flowchart)
(c) the metaphor, which represents the representative character of a sign by representing a parallelism in something else
[Wikipedia]
Icon
A picture that reproduces the aspect of a person.
An equation that reproduces the logical connection of the properties of a physical entity.
A 'Sign' that stands for an 'Object' by resembling or imitating it, in shape or by sharing a similar logical structure.
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
EMMC ASBL
Jesper Friis
University of Bologna, IT
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
1.0.0alpha2
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Measurement unit for energy.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/J
Joule
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.J03363
Replaced by dcterms:creator
author
Heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Heat
Heat
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02752
SIExactConstant
Physical constant that by definition (after the latest revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019) has a known exact numerical value when expressed in SI units.
A 'Process' is always a 'Physical', since a 'Void' does not have elements that evolves in time.
Following the common definition of process, the reader may think that every 'Physical' should be a process, since every 4D object always has a time dimension.
However, in the EMMO we restrict the meaning of the word process to 'Physical's whose evolution in time have a particular meaning for the ontologist (i.e. every 4D object unfolds in time, but not every 4D object may be of interest for the ontologist).
A 'Process' is not only something that unfolds in time (which is automatically represented in a 4D ontology), but something that has a meaning for the ontologist (i.e. that the ontologist can separate from the rest of the 4D physical for any reason).
A temporal part of a physical that identifies a particular type of evolution in time.
Process
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03709
Mass
Property of a physical body that express its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a force is applied.
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Mass
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Mass
CelsiusTemperature
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
An objective comparative measure of hot or cold.
Temperature is a relative quantity that can be used to express temperature differences. Unlike ThermodynamicTemperature, it cannot express absolute temperatures.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06261
http://dbpedia.org/page/Temperature
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/FineStructureConstant
A fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02389
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?alph
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
FineStructureConstant
http://dbpedia.org/page/Finestructure_constant
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/T
Tesla
Measurement unit for magnetic flux density or induction.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06283
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Probability is a dimensionless quantity that can attain values between 0 and 1; zero denotes the impossible event and 1 denotes a certain event.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04855
The propability for a certain outcome, is the ratio between the number of events leading to the given outcome and the total number of events.
Probability
hasProperParticipant
Yocto
Atom
A standalone atom has direct part one 'nucleus' and one 'electron_cloud'.
An O 'atom' within an O2 'molecule' is an 'ebonded_atom'.
In this material branch, H atom is a particular case, with respect to higher atomic number atoms, since as soon as it shares its electron it has no nucleus entangled electron cloud.
We cannot say that H2 molecule has direct part two H atoms, but has direct part two H nucleus.
An 'atom' is a 'nucleus' surrounded by an 'electron_cloud', i.e. a quantum system made of one or more bounded electrons.
SIAcceptedSpecialUnit
This is a list of units that are not defined as part of the International System of Units (SI), but are otherwise mentioned in the SI brouchure, because either the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) accepts their use as being multiples or submultiples of SIunits, they have important contemporary application worldwide, or are otherwise commonly encountered worldwide.
NonSI units mentioned in the SI.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NonSI_units_mentioned_in_the_SI
P
Giga
The EMMO can be used to represent real world entities as 'Physical's that are easy to connect to classical or quantum mechanical based models.
Classical mechanics poses no representational issues, for the EMMO: the 4D representation of 'Physical's is consistent with classical physics systems.
However, the representation of 'Physical's that are typically analized through quantum mechanics (e.g. molecules, atoms, clusters), is not straightforward.
1) De Broglie  Bohm interpretation
The most simple approach is to rely on Bohmian mechanics, in which each particle is supposed to exists in a specific position between measurements (hidden variables approach), while its trajectory is calculated using a Guiding Equation based on a quantum field calculated with the Schroedinger Equation.
While this approach is really easy to implement in an ontology, since each entity has its own well defined 4D region, its mathematical representation failed to receive large consensus due to the difficulties to include relativistic effects, to be extended to subnuclear scale and the strong nonlocality assumtpion of the quantum field.
Nevertheless, the Bohmian mechanics is a numerical approach that is used in electronic models to reduce the computational effort of the solution of Schroedinger Equation.
In practice, an EMMO user can declare a 'physical' individual that stand for the whole quantum system to be described, and at the same time all subparts individuals can be declared, having them a well defined position in time, according to De Broglie  Bohm interpretation. The Hamiltonian can be calculated by considering the subpart individuals.
'physical's are then made of 'physical' parts and 'void' parts that stand for the space between 'physical's (e.g. the void between electrons and nucleus in an atom).
2) Copenhagen interpretation
In this interpretation the properties (e.g. energy level, position, spin) of a particle are not defined in the interval between two measurements and the quantum system is entangled (i.e. properties of particles in the sysyem are correlated) and described by a global wavefunction obtained solving the Schroedinger Equation.
Upon measurement, the wavefunction collapses to a combination of close eigenstates that provide information about bservables of the system components (e.g. position, energy).
The EMMO can be used to represent 'physical's that can be related to Copenhagen based models. In practice, the user should follow these steps:
a) define the quantum system as a 'physical' individual (e.g. an H2 molecule) under a specific class (e.g. 'h2_molecule'). This individual is the whole.
b) define the axioms of the class that describe how many subparts are expected for the whole and their class types (e.g. 'h2_molecule' has axioms 'has_proper_part exactly 2 electron' and 'has_proper_part exactly 2 nucleus)
c) the user can now connect the whole to a Schroedinger equation based model whose Hamiltonian is calculated trough the information coming only from the axioms. No individuals are declared for the subparts!
d) a measurement done on the quantum system that provides information on the subpart observables is interpreted as wavefunction collapse and leads to the end of the whole and the declaration of the subparts individuals which can be themselves other quantum systems
e.g. if the outer electron of the H2 molecule interacts with another entity defining its state, then the whole that stands for the entangled H2 molecule becomes a 'physical' made of an electron individual, a quantum system made of one electron and two nuclei and the void between them.
e.g. in the BornOppenheimer approximation the user represent the atom by unentangling nucleus and electronic cloud. The unentanglement comes in the form of declaration of individual as parts.
e.g. the double slit experiment can be represent in the EMMO as:
a) before the slit: a 'physical' that extend in space and has parts 'electron' and 'void', called 'single_electron_wave_function'. 'electron' and 'void' are only in the axioms and not decalred individuals.
b) during slit passage: a 'physical' made of one declared individual, the 'electron'.
c) after the slit: again 'single_electron_wave_function'
d) upon collision with the detector: 'physical' made of one declared individual, the 'electron'.
In the EMMO there are no relations such as occupiesSpace, since 'Physical's are themselves the 4D regions.
A 'Item' that has part some 'Elementary' and whose temporal proper parts are only 'Physical's (i.e. it can be perceived without interruptions in time).
A 'Physical' is the class that contains all the individuals that stand for real world objects that interact physically with the ontologist, i.e. physical objects.
A physical object must be perceived through physical interaction by the ontologist. Then the ontologist can declare an individual standing for the physical object just perceived.
Perception is a subcategory of physical interactions. It is an interaction that stimulate a representation of the physical object within the ontologist (the agent).
From Latin physica "study of nature" (and Ancient Greek φυσικός, “natural”).
Here the word relates to things perceived through the senses as opposed to the mind; tangible or concrete.
A 'Physical' with dimensions other than 4D cannot exist, following the restriction of the parent 'EMMO' class.
It follows from the fact that perception is always unfolding in time.
e.g. you always have an aperture time when you take a picture or measure a property. Instantaneous perceptions are idealizations (abstractions) or a very small time measurement.
The purpose of the 'Physical' branch is to provide a representation of the real world objects, while the models used to name, explain or predict the behaviour of the real world objects lay under the 'Semiotic' branch.
More than one semiotic representation can be connected to the same 'Physical'.
e.g. NavierStokes or Euler equation applied to the same fluid are an example of mathematical model used to represent a physical object for some specific interpreter.
A 'Physical' must include at least an 'Elementary' part, and can include 'Void' parts.
A 'Physical' may include as part also the 'Void' surrounding or enclosed by its 'Physical' sub parts.
There are no particular criteria for 'Physical's structure, except that is made of some 'Elementary's as proper parts and not only 'Void'.
This is done in order to take into account the quantum nature of physical systems, in which the actual position of subcomponents (e.g. electrons in an atom) is not known except for its probability distribution function (according to the Copenhagen interpretation.)
e.g. a real world object that has spatial parts an atom and a cubic light year of void, extending for some time, can be a physical object.
Physical
1
A reference can be a measurement unit, a measurement procedure, a reference material, or a combination of such.
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
ReferenceUnit
A symbolic is recognized as reference unit also if it is not part of a quatity (e.g. as in the sentence "the Bq is the reference unit of Becquerel").
For this reason we can't declare the axiom:
ReferenceUnit SubClassOf: inverse(hasReferenceUnit) some Quantity
because there exist reference units without being part of a quantity.
This is peculiar to EMMO, where quantities (symbolic) are distinct with properties (semiotics).
UnitSymbol
Some examples are "Pa", "m" and "J".
A symbol that stands for a single unit.
hasTemporalDirectPart
ElectricResistanceDimension
Molecule
An entity is called essential if removing one direct part will lead to a change in entity class.
An entity is called redundand if removing one direct part will not lead to a change in entity class.
H20, C6H12O6, CH4
This definition states that this object is a nonperiodic set of atoms or a set with a finite periodicity.
Removing an atom from the state will result in another type of atom_based state.
e.g. you cannot remove H from H20 without changing the molecule type (essential). However, you can remove a C from a nanotube (redundant). C60 fullerene is a molecule, since it has a finite periodicity and is made of a well defined number of atoms (essential). A C nanotube is not a molecule, since it has an infinite periodicity (redundant).
An atom_based state defined by an exact number of ebonded atomic species and an electron cloud made of the shared electrons.
T3 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
Energy required to move a unit charge through an electric field from a reference point.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Voltage
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00424
ElectricPotential
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Voltage
Voltage
Foam
A colloid formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
Wb
ElectromagneticPermeability
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectromagneticPermeability
T2 L+1 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
Permeability
http://dbpedia.org/page/Permeability_(electromagnetism)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04503
Measure for how the magnetization of material is affected by the application of an external magnetic field .
f
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DoseEquivalent
T2 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
DoseEquivalent
A dose quantity used in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Energy
Measurement unit for electric capacitance.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/FARAD
Farad
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02320
n
The word "cat" considered as a collection of 'symbol's respecting the rules of english language.
In this example the 'symbolic' entity "cat" is not related to the real cat, but it is only a word (like it would be to an italian person that ignores the meaning of this english word).
If an 'interpreter' skilled in english language is involved in a 'semiotic' process with this word, that "cat" became also a 'sign' i.e. it became for the 'interpreter' a representation for a real cat.
A string is made of concatenated symbols whose arrangement is onedimensional. Each symbol can have only one previous and one next neighborhood (bidirectional list).
A string is not requested to respect any syntactic rule: it's simply directly made of symbols.
A physical made of more than one symbol sequentially arranged.
String
SolidLiquidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of liquid in a solid continuum phase.
An 'equation' that stands for a 'physical_law' by mathematically defining the relations between physics_quantities.
PhysicsEquation
The Newton's equation of motion.
The Schrödinger equation.
The NavierStokes equation.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
Z
A 'Collection' individual stands for a nonselfconnected real world object.
A 'Collection' individual is related to each 'Item' individuals of the collection (i.e. the members) through the membership relation.
An 'Item' individual stands for a real world selfconnected object which can be represented as a whole made of connected parts (e.g. a car made of components).
The class of all individuals that stand for a real world not selfconnected object.
e.g. the collection of users of a particular software, the collection of atoms that have been part of that just dissociated molecule, or even the collection of atoms that are part of a molecule considered as single individual nonconnected objects and not as a mereotopological selfconnected fusion.
Collection
From Latin collectio, from colligere ‘gather together’.
Formally, 'Collection' is axiomatized as the class of individuals that hasMember some 'Item'.
A 'Collection' cannot have as member another 'Collection'.
Dust, sand storm.
GasSolidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of solid in a gas continuum phase.
Derived quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
ISQDerivedQuantity
http://dbpedia.org/page/Time
Time can be seen as the duration of an event or, more operationally, as "what clocks read".
qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Time
The indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130103
Onedimensional subspace of spacetime, which is locally orthogonal to space.
T+1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Time
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06375
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
University of Bologna, IT
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
1.0.0alpha2
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
SINTEF, NO
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
EMMC ASBL
Jesper Friis
UnitOne
Typically used for ratios of two units whos dimensions cancels out.
Represents the number 1, used as an explicit unit to say something has no units.
Refractive index or volume fraction.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/UNITLESS
dbpediaEntry
URL to corresponding concept in DBpedia.
https://wiki.dbpedia.org/
Numeral
SI coherent measurement unit for volume.
CubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/cubicMetre
Sphere
MetrologicalSymbol
A symbol that stands for a concept in the language of the meterological domain of ISO 80000.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Force
T2 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Force
Any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02480
Force
3‑1.1 (refers to length)
ISO80000Ref
Corresponding item number in ISO 80 000.
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:80000:1:ed1:v1:en
hasIndex
hasProperty
Photon
The class of individuals that stand for photons elementary particles.
MoleFraction
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/AmountOfSubstanceFraction
AmountFraction
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00296
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MoleFraction
The amount of a constituent divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Mole_fraction
A liquid solution made of two or more component substances.
LiquidSolution
Yotta
IECEntry
http://www.electropedia.org/
URL to corresponding entry in the IEC Electropedia online database of ISO 80000 terms and definitions of quantities and units available at http://www.electropedia.org/.
1 + 1 = 2
ArithmeticEquation
Pa
Gas is a compressible fluid, a state of matter that has no fixed shape and no fixed volume.
Gas
encloses
Enclosure is reflexive and transitive.
T2 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
1
ArithmeticOperator
An 'Graphical' that stands for a token or a composition of tokens from one or more alphabets, without necessarily respecting syntactic rules.
Symbolic
fe780
emmo
!5*a
cat
for(i=0;i<N;++i)
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
Subclasses of 'QuantitativeProperty' classify objects according to the type semiosis that is used to connect the property to the object (e.g. by measurement, by convention, by modelling).
QuantitativeProperty
A 'Quantity' that can be quantified with respect to a standardized reference physical instance (e.g. the prototype meter bar, the kg prototype) or method (e.g. resilience) through a measurement process.
"A property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be expressed by means of a number and a reference"
ISO 800001
"A reference can be a measurement unit, a measurement procedure, a reference material, or a combination of such."
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
A quantitative property is always expresssed as a quantity (i.e. a number and a reference unit). For the EMMO, a nominalistic ontology, there is no property as abstract object.
A property is a sign that stands for an object according to a specific code shared by some observers.
For quantititative properties, one possible code that is shared between the scientific community (the observers) is the SI system of units.
EMMO applies the naming convension to its subproperties of rdfs:seeAlso that their label must end with one of the following terms:
 'Match': resolvable URLs to corresponding entity in another ontology
 'Entry': resolvable URLs to a human readable resource describing the subject
 'Ref': nonresolvable reference to a human readable resource describing the subject
Indicate a resource that might provide additional information about the subject resource.
Interpreter
The entity (or agent, or observer, or cognitive entity) who connects 'Sign', 'Interpretant' and 'Object'.
A continuum is made of a sufficient number of parts that it continues to exists as continuum individual even after the loss of one of them i.e. a continuum is a redundant.
A state that is a collection of sufficiently large number of other parts such that:
 it is the bearer of qualities that can exists only by the fact that it is a sum of parts
 the smallest partition dV of the state volume in which we are interested in, contains enough parts to be statistically consistent: n [#/m3] x dV [m3] >> 1
A continuum is not necessarily small (i.e. composed by the minimum amount of sates to fulfill the definition).
A single continuum individual can be the whole fluid in a pipe.
Continuum
A continuum is the bearer of properties that are generated by the interactions of parts such as viscosity and thermal or electrical conductivity.
EntropyDimension
DerivedUnit
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units corresponding to the relations defining the derived quantities in terms of the base quantities.
K
1
Access, DE
Emanuele Ghedini
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
EMMC ASBL
Gerhard Goldbeck
Jesper Friis
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
University of Bologna, IT
1.0.0alpha2
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
Adham Hashibon
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Georg Schmitz
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
A Material occurring in nature, without the need of human intervention.
NaturalMaterial
T2 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Energy imparted to matter by ionizing radiation in a suitable small element of volume divided by the mass of that element of volume.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Absorbed_dose
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AbsorbedDose
T2 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00031
AbsorbedDose
Femto
Semiosis
Me looking a cat and saying loud: "Cat!" > the semiosis process
me > interpreter
cat > object (in Peirce semiotics)
the cat perceived by my mind > interpretant
"Cat!" > sign, the produced sign
A 'Process', that has participant an 'Interpreter', that is aimed to produce a 'Sign' representing another participant, the 'Object'.
′
ElectricPotentialDimension
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/OHM
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.O04280
Measurement unit for resistance.
Ohm
AngularMomentumDimension
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricConductivity
Conductivity
ElectricConductivity
T+3 L3 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
Measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current.
Conductivity is equeal to the resiprocal of resistivity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01245
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistivity_and_conductivity
From Old French "deviser", meaning: arrange, plan, contrive.
Literally "dispose in portions," from Vulgar Latin "divisare", frequentative of Latin dividere, meaning "to divide"
An engineered object which is instrumental for reaching a particular purpose through its characteristic functioning process, with particular reference to mechanical or electronic equipment.
Device
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05240
Factor by which the phase velocity of light is reduced in a medium.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Refractive_index
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RefractiveIndex
RefractiveIndex
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01032
ChemicalPotential
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ChemicalPotential
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Chemical_potential
Energy per unit change in amount of substance.
T0 L3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassConcentration
Mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture.
MassConcentration
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03713
http://dbpedia.org/page/Mass_concentration_(chemistry)
ForceDimension
c
Integer
x
k
Variable
A 'Variable' is a symbolic object that stands for a numerical defined 'Mathematical' object like e.g. a number, a vector, a matrix.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00051
http://dbpedia.org/page/Acceleration
Acceleration
Derivative of velocity with respect to time.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Acceleration
T2 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZ
Measurement unit for frequence.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02785
Hertz
Resistance quantum.
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/VonKlitzingConstant
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
VonKlitzingConstant
The von Klitzing constant is defined as Planck constant divided by the square of the elementary charge.
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?rk
A 'sign' that not only stands for a 'physical' or a 'process', but it is also a simplified representation, aimed to assist calculations for its description or for predictions of its behaviour.
A 'model' represents a 'physical' or a 'process' by direct similitude (e.g. small scale replica) or by capturing in a logical framework the relations between its properties (e.g. mathematical model).
A 'model' prediction is always a prediction of the properties of an entity, since an entity is known by an interpreter only through perception.
Model
hasPhysicalDimension
T2 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
Item
From Latin item, "likewise, just so, moreover".
An 'Item' individual stands for a real world selfconnected object which can be represented as a whole made of connected parts (e.g. a car made of components).
In the EMMO, connectivity is the topological foundation of causality.
All physical systems, i.e. systems whose behaviour is explained by physics laws, are represented only by 'Item's.
Members of a 'Collection' lack of causality connection, i.e. they do not constitute a physical system as a whole.
A real world object is selfconnected if any two parts that make up the whole are connected to each other (here the concept of connection is primitive).
Alternatively, using the primitive pathconnectivity concept we can define a selfconnected real world object as an object for which each couple of points is pathconnected.
ElectronCloud
A 'spacetime' that stands for a quantum system made of electrons.
Atto
IdiomaticSymbol
k
A soft, solid or solidlike colloid consisting of two or more components, one of which is a liquid, present in substantial quantity.
Gel
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase.
The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but there can be several immiscible phases of the same state of matter. Also, the term phase is sometimes used to refer to a set of equilibrium states demarcated in terms of state variables such as pressure and temperature by a phase boundary on a phase diagram. Because phase boundaries relate to changes in the organization of matter, such as a change from liquid to solid or a more subtle change from one crystal structure to another, this latter usage is similar to the use of "phase" as a synonym for state of matter. However, the state of matter and phase diagram usages are not commensurate with the formal definition given above and the intended meaning must be determined in part from the context in which the term is used.
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_(matter)]
PhaseOfMatter
A matter object throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
AmountDimension
Hardness
Resilience
"Ordinal quantities, such as Rockwell C hardness, are usually not considered to be part of a system of quantities because they are related to other quantities through empirical relations only."
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
OrdinalQuantity
"Quantity, defined by a conventional measurement procedure, for which a total ordering relation can be established, according to magnitude, with other quantities of the same kind, but for which no algebraic operations among those quantities exist"
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
2manifold
Ratio of circular arc length to radius.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PlaneAngle
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PlaneAngle
http://dbpedia.org/page/Angle
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00346
Angle
A solvable set of one Physics Equation and one or more Materials Relations.
PhysicsBasedModel
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?h
http://dbpedia.org/page/Planck_constant
PlanckConstant
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04685
T1 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/PlanckConstant
The quantum of action. It defines the kg base unit in the SI system.
Deka
"In the name “amount of substance”, the word “substance” will typically be replaced by words to specify the substance concerned in any particular application, for example “amount of hydrogen chloride, HCl”, or “amount of benzene, C6H6 ”. It is important to give a precise definition of the entity involved (as emphasized in the definition of the mole); this should preferably be done by specifying the molecular chemical formula of the material involved. Although the word “amount” has a more general dictionary definition, the abbreviation of the full name “amount of substance” to “amount” may be used for brevity."
 SI Brochure
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00297
The number of elementary entities present.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Amount_of_substance
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AmountOfSubstance
AmountOfSubstance
The number of waves per unit length along the direction of propagation.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Wavenumber
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06664
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Wavenumber
Wavenumber
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/Wavenumber
Y
Manufacturing
From Latin manufacture: "made by hand".
The process of transforming raw materials into a product by the use of manual labor, machinery or chemical/biological processes.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Luminous_flux
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
LuminousFlux
Perceived power of light.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03646
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LuminousFlux
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04792
http://dbpedia.org/page/Power_(physics)
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Power
T3 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Power
Rate of transfer of energy per unit time.
StateOfMatter
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_matter
A superclass made as the disjoint union of all the form under which matter can exist.
1
Force of gravity acting on a body.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Weight
Weight
T2 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Weight
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06668
disconnected
'Graphical' objects include writings, pictures, sketches ...
A 'Perceptual' which stands for a real world object whose spatial configuration shows a pattern identifiable by an observer.
From the Ancient Greek γραφή (graphḗ) which means drawing, painting, writing, a writing, description, and from γράφω (gráphō) which means scratch, carve.
Graphical
=
A manufacturing process aimed to the production of a device made of specific components.
Assemblying a bicycle, building a car.
DiscreteManufacturing
http://dbpedia.org/page/Speed_of_light
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05854
The speed of light in vacuum. Defines the base unit metre in the SI system.
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SpeedOfLightInVacuum
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?c
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/SpeedOfLight_Vacuum
An 'Existent' individual stands for a real world object for which the ontologist wants to provide univocal tessellation in time.
By definition, the tiles are represented by 'State's individual.
Tiles are related to the 'Existent' through temporal direct parthood, enforcing nontransitivity and inversefunctionality.
'Existent' is the EMMO class to be used for representing real world physical objects under a reductionistic perspective (i.e. objects come from the composition of subpart objects, both in time and space).
'Existent' class collects all individuals that stand for physical objects that can be structured in well defined temporal subparts called states, through the temporal direct parthood relation.
This class provides a first granularity hierarchy in time, and a way to axiomatize tessellation principles for a specific whole with a nontransitivity relation (direct parthood) that helps to retain the granularity levels.
e.g. a car, a supersaturated gas with nucleating nanoparticles, an atom that becomes ionized and then recombines with an electron.
Existent
A 'Physical' which is a tessellation of 'State' temporal direct parts.
exsistere (latin): to stay (to persist through time) outside others of the same type (to be distinct from the rest).
Being hasTemporalDirectPart a proper parthood relation, there cannot be 'Existent' made of a single 'State'.
Moreover, due to inverse functionality, a 'State' can be part of only one 'Existent', preventing overlapping between 'Existent's.
An 'observation' that results in a quantitative comparison of a 'property' of an 'object' with a standard reference.
Measurement
The union of classes of elementary particles that possess mass.
Massive
Quantities defined as ratios `Q=A/B` having equal dimensions in numerator and denominator are dimensionless quantities but still have a physical dimension defined as dim(A)/dim(B).
Johansson, Ingvar (2010). "Metrological thinking needs the notions of parametric quantities, units and dimensions". Metrologia. 47 (3): 219–230. doi:10.1088/00261394/47/3/012. ISSN 00261394.
The class of quantities that are the ratio of two quantities with the same physical dimensionality.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
refractive index,
volume fraction,
fine structure constant
RatioQuantity
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/00261394/47/3/012
1E+15
PerAmountDimension
Deci
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06643
VolumeFraction
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/VolumeFraction
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Volume_fraction
Volume of a constituent of a mixture divided by the sum of volumes of all constituents prior to mixing.
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/VolumeFraction
ElectricImpedance
Measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_impedance
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Impedance
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
Impedance
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG_C
Measurement unit for Celsius temperature. This unit can only be used for expressing temperature differences.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01561
DegreeCelsius
Pico
SolidAngle
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Solid_angle
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05732
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SolidAngle
Ratio of area on a sphere to its radius squared.
The 'Engineered' branch represents real world objects that show some level of complexity/heterogeneity in their composition, and are made for a specific use.
Car, tire, composite material.
Engineered
A 'physical' that stands for a real world object that has been designed and manufactured for a particular purpose.
C++
A language object respectin the syntactic rules of C++.
Torus
ElectricInductance
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M04076
http://dbpedia.org/page/Inductance
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Inductance
T2 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
Inductance
A property of an electrical conductor by which a change in current through it induces an electromotive force in both the conductor itself and in any nearby conductors by mutual inductance.
An bonded atom that shares at least one electron to the atombased entity of which is part of.
The bond types that are covered by this definition are the strong electonic bonds: covalent, metallic and ionic.
A real bond between atoms is always something hybrid between covalent, metallic and ionic.
In general, metallic and ionic bonds have atoms sharing electrons.
BondedAtom
This class can be used to represent molecules as simplified quantum systems, in which outer molecule shared electrons are unentangled with the inner shells of the atoms composing the molecule.
DifferentialOperator
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Units#Derived_units
These units are SI coherent by definition.
The 22 derived units that are given a special name in the SI system that stands for units derived by SI base units.
SISpecialUnit
Mud
A coarse dispersion of solids in a liquid continuum phase.
LiquidSolidSuspension
hasInterpretant
The equals symbol.
Equals
PhaseHomogeneousMixture
A single phase mixture.
s
Boolean
hasSpatialDirectPart
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
NanoParticle
Nanomaterials are Materials possessing all external dimension measuring 1100nm
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
SINTEF, NO
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
Gerhard Goldbeck
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
European Materials & Modelling Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Emanuele Ghedini
1.0.0alpha2
Access, DE
The EMMO requires FacT++ reasoner plugin in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy (ctrl+R hotkey in Protege).
Georg Schmitz
Adham Hashibon
European Materials & Modelling Ontology
EMMC ASBL
University of Bologna, IT
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
Jesper Friis
T0 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Volume
Volume
Extent of an object in space.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Volume
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.B00695
BoltzmannConstant
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/BoltzmannConstant
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Boltzmann_constant) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
A physical constant relating energy at the individual particle level with temperature. It is the gas constant R divided by the Avogadro constant.
It defines the Kelvin unit in the SI system.
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Boltzmann_constant
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?k
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/CatalyticActivity
CatalyticActivity
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00881
Increase in the rate of reaction of a specified chemical reaction that an enzyme produces in a specific assay system.
1E+24
T3 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
cd
http://dbpedia.org/page/Gravitational_constant
NewtonianConstantOfGravity
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?bg
T2 L+3 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Physical constant in Newton's law of gravitation and in Einstein's general theory of relativity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02695
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/NewtonianConstantOfGravitation
VacuumElectricPermittivity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04508
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/PermittivityOfVacuum
The value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
T+4 L3 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Vacuum_permittivity) is outdated since May 20, 2019. It is now a measured constant.
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?ep0
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The frequency standard in the SI system in which the photon absorption by transitions between the two hyperfine ground states of caesium133 atoms are used to control the output frequency.
It defines the base unit second in the SI system.
HyperfineTransitionFrequencyOfCs
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?nucs
rad
T0 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
Aerosol
A colloid composed of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas.
URL to corresponing entity in QUDT.
qudtEntry
http://www.qudt.org/2.1/catalog/qudtcatalog.html
The inverse of length.
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
InverseLength
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_length
http://dbpedia.org/page/Reciprocal_length
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/InverseLength
ReciprocalLength
Physicalistic
The perspective for which physical objects are categorized only by concepts coming from applied physical sciences.
hasOverlapWith
Colloids are characterized by the occurring of the Tyndall effect on light.
A mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles (from 1 nm to 1 μm) is suspended throughout another substance and that does not settle, or would take a very long time to settle appreciably.
Colloid
h
BaseQuantity
"Quantity in a conventionally chosen subset of a given system of quantities, where no quantity in the subset can be expressed in terms of the other quantities within that subset"
ISO 800001
The expression used by the EMMO for physical dimensions is a metrological symbol (but a string at meta level, i.e. the ontologist level) like this:
Ta Lb Mc Id Θe Nf Jg
where a, b, c, d, e, f and g are 0 or signed integers.
Regex for the physical dimension symbol for the EMMO is:
^T([+][19]0) L([+][19]0) M([+][19]0) I([+][19]0) Θ([+][19]0) N([+][19]0) J([+][19]0)$
Examples of correspondance between base units and physical dimensions are:
mol > T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
s > T+1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
A/m2 > T0 L0 M2 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
All physical quantities, with the exception of counts, are derived quantities, which may be written in terms of base quantities according to the equations of physics. The dimensions of the derived quantities are written as products of powers of the dimensions of the base quantities using the equations that relate the derived quantities to the base quantities.
In general the dimension of any quantity Q is written in the form of a dimensional product,
dim Q = T^α L^β M^γ I^δ Θ^ε N^ζ J^η
where the exponents α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η, which are generally small integers, which can be positive, negative, or zero, are called the dimensional exponents.
(SI brochure)
A symbol that, following SI specifications, describe the physical dimensionality of a physical quantity and the exponents of the base units in a measurement unit.
The conventional symbolic representation of the dimension of a base quantity is a single upper case letter in roman (upright) type. The conventional symbolic representation of the dimension of a derived quantity is the product of powers of the dimensions of the base quantities according to the definition of the derived quantity. The dimension of a quantity Q is denoted by dim Q.
ISO 800001
PhysicalDimension
SINonCoherentUnit
2+2
ArithmeticExpression
d
VelocityDimension
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ElectronMass
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electron_rest_mass
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?me
ElectronMass
The rest mass of an electron.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02008
T2 L0 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
'EMMO' is the disjoint union of 'Item' and 'Collection' (covering axiom).
The union implies that 'EMMO' individuals can only be 'Item' individuals (standing for selfconnected real world objects) or 'Collection' individuals (standing for a collection of disconnected items).
Disjointness means that a 'Collection' individual cannot be an 'Item' individual and viceversa, representing the fact that a real world object cannot be selfconnected and nonself connected at the same time.
EMMO
Mereotopology is the fundamental logical representation used by the EMMO ontologist to characterize the universe and to provide the definitions to connect real world objects to the EMMO concepts.
Parthood relations do not change dimensionality of the real world object referred by an 'EMMO' individual, i.e. every part of a real world object always retains its 4D dimensionality.
The smallest part of a real world object (i.e. a part that has no proper parts) is referred in the EMMO by a 'Quantum' individual.
It follows that, for the EMMO, real world objects of dimensionality lower than 4D (e.g. surfaces, lines) do not exist.
For the EMMO ontologist the whole universe is represented as a 4D pathconnected topological manifold (i.e. the spacetime).
A real world object is then a 4D topological subregion of the universe.
A universe subregion is isolated and defined as a real world object by the ontologist. Then, through a semiotic process that occurs at metaontological level (i.e. outside the ontology). an EMMO ontology entity (e.g. an OWL individual) is assigned to represent that real world object.
The fundamental distinction between real world objects, upon which the EMMO is based, is selfconnectedness: a real world object can be selfconnected xor not selfconnected.
In the EMMO we will refer to the universe as a Minkowski space, restricting the ontology to special relativity only. However, exension to general relativity, will adding more complexity, should not change the overall approach.
The class representing the collection of all the individuals declared in this ontology standing for real world objects.
ElectricCurrentDimension
Milli
In math usually number and numeral are distinct concepts, the numeral being the symbol or a composition of symbols (e.g. 3.14, 010010, three) and the number is the idea behind it.
More than one numeral stand for the same number.
In the EMMO abstract entities does not exists, and numbers are simply defined by other numerals, so that a number is the class of all the numerals that are equivalent (e.g. 3 and 0011 are numerals that stands for the same number).
Or alternatively, an integer numeral may also stands for a set of a specific cardinality (e.g. 3 stands for a set of three apples). Rational and real numbers are simply a syntactic arrangment of integers (digits, in decimal system).
The fact that you can't give a name to a number without using a numeral or, in case of positive integers, without referring to a real world objects set with specific cardinality, suggests that the abstract concept of number is not a concept that can be practically used.
For these reasons, the EMMO will consider numerals and numbers as the same concept.
Number
A number is actually a string (e.g. 1.4, 1e8) of numerical digits and other symbols. However, in order not to increase complexity of the taxonomy and relations, here we take a number as an "atomic" object (i.e. we do not include digits in the EMMO as alphabet for numbers).
A 'Number' individual provide the link between the ontology and the actual data, through the data property hasNumericalValue.
A numerical data value.
Inverse of 'ElectricalResistance'.
Measure of the ease for electric current to pass through a material.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electrical_resistance_and_conductance
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01925
Conductance
T+3 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Conductance
ElectricConductance
3manifold
Gram is defined as one thousandth of the SI unit kilogram.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GM
Gram
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02680
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/A
Ampere
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00300
The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the elementary charge e to be 1.602176634×10−19 when expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A s, where the second is defined in terms of ∆νCs.
ha
A standalone atom with an unbalanced number of electrons with respect to its atomic number.
The ion_atom is the basic part of a pure ionic bonded compound i.e. without eclectron sharing,
IonAtom
J
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/ARCSEC
Measure of plane angle defined as 1/3600 or a degree.
SecondOfArc
ArcSecond
EMMORelation
The superclass for all relations used by the EMMO.
A mathematical string that can be evaluated as true or false.
MathematicalFormula
Vector quantity μ causing a change to its energy ΔW in an external magnetic field of field flux density B:
ΔW = −μ · B
MagneticDipoleMoment
T0 L+2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
109.1
http://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_moment
For an atom or nucleus, this energy is quantized and can be written as:
W = g μ M B
where g is the appropriate g factor, μ is mostly the Bohr magneton or nuclear magneton, M is magnetic quantum number, and B is magnitude of the magnetic flux density.
 ISO 80000
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticDipoleMoment
http://goldbook.iupac.org/terms/view/M03688
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211155
0.000001
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
A computational model that uses existing data to create new insight into the behaviour of a system.
DataBasedModel
A wellformed finite combination of mathematical symbols according to some specific rules.
Expression
T1 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
C
Exa
A mathematical model can be defined as a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language to facilitate proper explanation of a system or to study the effects of different components and to make predictions on patterns of behaviour.
Abramowitz and Stegun, 1968
MathematicalModel
Observer
An 'interpreter' that perceives another 'entity' (the 'object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'property' (the 'sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception.
Force per unit oriented surface area .
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Stress
Measure of the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Stress_(mechanics)
T2 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Stress
This language domain makes use of ISO 80000 concepts.
Metrological
Metrology includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement, whatever the measurement uncertainty and field of application.
 International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
A language object used in metrology.
AreaDimension
In nonrelativistic physics, the centre of mass doesn’t depend on the chosen reference frame.
The unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass of an Item sums to zero. Equivalently, it is the point where if a force is applied to the Item, causes the Item to move in direction of force without rotation.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Center_of_mass
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_of_mass
CentreOfMass
http://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130312
Semiotic subclasse are defined using Peirce's semiotic theory.
"Namely, a sign is something, A, which brings something, B, its interpretant sign determined or created by it, into the same sort of correspondence with something, C, its object, as that in which itself stands to C." (Peirce 1902, NEM 4, 20–21).
The triadic elements:
 'sign': the sign A (e.g. a name)
 'interpretant': the sign B as the effects of the sign A on the interpreter (e.g. the mental concept of what a name means)
 'object': the object C (e.g. the entity to which the sign A and B refer to)
This class includes also the 'interpeter' i.e. the entity that connects the 'sign' to the 'object'
Semiotic
The class of individuals that stands for semiotic objects, i.e. objects that take part on a semiotic process.
LuminousEfficacyDimension
InductanceDimension
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02014
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/EV
ElectronVolt
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electronvolt
The amount of energy gained (or lost) by the charge of a single electron moving across an electric potential difference of one volt.
A
Participation is a parthood relation: you must be part (and then be connected) of the process to contribute to it.
Participation is not under direct parthood since a process is not strictly related to reductionism, but it's a way to categorize temporal regions by the interpreters.
hasParticipant
The relation between a process and an object participating to it.
hasProperPart
SolidFoam
A foam of trapped gas in a solid.
Aerogel
1E18
T+4 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
StandaloneAtom
A standalone atom can be bonded with other atoms by intermolecular forces (i.e. dipole–dipole, London dispersion force, hydrogen bonding), since this bonds does not involve electron sharing.
An atom that does not share electrons with other atoms.
mol
Multiplication
T0 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
l
While every 'process' in the EMMO involves physical objects, this class is devoted to represent real world objects that express a phenomenon relevant for the ontologist.
PhysicalPhenomenon
A 'process' that is recognized by physical sciences and is catogrized accordingly.
This class is the most general superclass for the categorization of real world objects that are recognizable by an interpreter (agent).
A 'Perceptual' can stand for something else in a semiotic process (acting as sign or as object).
However, a perceptual is not necessarily a 'Sign' (e.g. a line sketched on a blackboard is a recognizable 'Perceptual' but it may stand for nothing).
A 'Physical' which stands for a real world object that can stimulate a perception (e.g. a mental impression, the excitation of a sensor) to an interpreter (human or nonhuman).
The metasemiotic process:
I see a cloud in the sky. Since I'm an EMMO ontologist, I create an individual named Cloud under the 'Impression' class. This semiotic process occurs at metalevel: it's how I use the EMMO as tool for a direct representation of the world.
The semiotic process within EMMO:
My friend looks at the same cloud and says: "It is an elephant".
I use the EMMO to record this experience by declaring:
 my friend as MyFriend individual, belonging to 'Interpreter' classes
 the sound of the word "elephant" as an acoustical impression individual named ElephantWord, belonging to 'Impression'
 a relation hasSign between Cloud and ElephantWord, that makes ElephantWord also belonging to 'Sign' class and Cloud belonging also to 'Object' class
 a 'Semiosis' individual called MyFriendElephantCloud that hasParticipant: Cloud, ElephantWord and MyFriend, respectively as object, sign and interpreter.
A line scratched on a surface.
A sound.
A smell.
The word 'cat' and the sound of the word 'cat' (the first one is graphical and the second acoustical).
'Perceptual' includes real world objects that:
 are part of a communication system (e.g. words, speech, alphabets)
 are not part of a communication system, but can be identified and referred by an interpreter
Perceptual
A 'Perceptual' is a metaobject, meaning that is addressed by the ontologist (the metainterpreter) in a metasemiotic process occurring outside the EMMO.
A 'Perceptual' becomes an 'Object', when it is part of a 'Semiotic' process described by the ontologist through the EMMO.
From Latin perceptiō (“a receiving or collecting, perception, comprehension”), from perceptus (“perceived, observed”).
NaturalLaw
Exponent
Unit for refractive index.
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two speeds.
SpeedFractionUnit
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of electrons.
Density functional theory.
HartreeFock.
ElectronicModel
overcrosses
Tera
The class of individuals that stand for an elementary mark of a specific symbolic code (alphabet).
Symbols of a formal language need not be symbols of anything. For instance there are logical constants which do not refer to any idea, but rather serve as a form of punctuation in the language (e.g. parentheses).
Symbols of a formal language must be capable of being specified without any reference to any interpretation of them.
(Wikipedia)
The class is the idea of the symbol, while the individual of that class stands for a specific mark (or token) of that idea.
Symbol
Subclasses of 'Symbol' are alphabets, in formal languages terminology.
A 'Symbol' is atomic for that alphabet, i.e. it has no parts that are symbols for the same alphabet.
e.g. a math symbol is not made of other math symbols
A Symbol may be a String in another language.
e.g. "Bq" is the symbol for Becquerel units when dealing with metrology, or a string of "B" and "q" symbols when dealing with characters.
The class of letter "A" is the symbol as idea and the letter A that you see on the screen is the mark.
1E+18
Plane
m
MassNumber
AtomicMassNumber
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassNumber
NucleonNumber
Number of nucleons in an atomic nucleus.
TemperatureDimension
1E12
LengthDimension
A gaseous solution made of more than one component type.
GasMixture
An 'equation' that has parts two 'polynomial's
2 * a  b = c
AlgebricEquation
Field
The concepts of matter and field for classical physics, upon which we can categorize physical entities, are replaced in quantum physics by the more general concepts of quantum field.
Here the class 'Field' refers to the quantum field of massless bosonic particles (i.e. photons, gluons), while the class 'Matter' refers to the quantum field of massive fermionic or bosonic particles (e.g. quarks, electrons).
A 'Physical' with 'Massless' parts that are mediators of interactions.
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Measurement of energy in a thermodynamic system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02141
http://dbpedia.org/page/Enthalpy
Enthalpy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Enthalpy
Ω
Spacing
A coarse dispersion of gas in a solid continuum phase.
SolidGasSuspension
AlgebricOperator
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of continuum volume.
ContinuumModel
http://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_field
Strength of a magnetic field. Commonly denoted H.
MagneticFieldStrength
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFieldStrength
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03683
T0 L1 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
kg
MagneticDipoleMomentDimension
T2 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PressureDimension
An equation that define a new variable in terms of other mathematical entities.
The definition of velocity as v = dx/dt.
The definition of density as mass/volume.
y = f(x)
DefiningEquation
T
Perspective
This class is the practical implementation of the EMMO pluralistic approach for which the only objective categorization is provided by the Universe individual and all the Quantum individuals.
Between these two extremes, there are several subjective ways to categorize real world objects, each one provide under a 'Perspective' subclass.
The class of individuals that stand for real world objects according to a specific representational perspective.
E
MultipleUnit
Measurement unit obtained by multiplying a given measurement unit by an integer greater than one.
hasModel
The complete set of SI units includes both the coherent set and the multiples and submultiples formed by using the SI prefixes.
The set of units provided by the SI referring to the ISQ.
The names, symbols and prefixes of SI units are defined by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Conference_on_Weights_and_Measures
SIUnit
EnergyDimension
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_unit
One astronomical unit is defined as exactly 149597870700 m, which is roughly the distance from earth to sun.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Astronomical_unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PARSEC
AstronomicalUnit
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of mesoscopic entities, i.e. a set of bounded atoms like a molecule, bead or nanoparticle.
MesoscopicModel
Measurement unit for pressure.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PA
Pascal
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04442
0.001
The basic constituent of 'item's that can be proper partitioned only in time up to quantum level.
From Latin elementārius (“elementary”), from elementum (“one of the four elements of antiquity; fundamentals”)
According to mereology, this should be call 'atomistic' in the strict etimological sense of the word (from greek, atomos: undivisible).
Mereology based on such items is called atomistic mereology.
However, in order not to confuse the lexicon between mereology and physics (in which an atom is a divisible physical entity) we prefer to call it 'elementary', recalling the concept of elementary particle coming from the standard particles model.
Elementary
While a 'Quantum' is atomistic in time and space, an 'elementary' is atomistic only in space, recalling the concept of elementary particle.
MagneticFluxDimension
Numerical
A 'Mathematical' that has no unknown value, i.e. all its 'Variable"s parts refers to a 'Number' (for scalars that have a builtin datatype) or to another 'Numerical' (for complex numerical data structures that should rely on external implementations).
altLabel
Replaced by skos:altLabel
AreaDensity
http://dbpedia.org/page/Area_density
Mass per unit area.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06167
T0 L2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Vapor
A liquid aerosol composed of water droplets in air or another gas.
A reference unit provided by a reference material.
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
StandardUnit
Arbitrary amountofsubstance concentration of lutropin in a given sample of plasma (WHO international standard 80/552): 5.0 International Unit/l
T2 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
VolumeFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two volumes.
Unit for volume fraction.
Circle
In Peirce semiotics this kind of sign category is called symbol. However, since symbol is also used in formal languages, the name is changed in conventional.
A 'Sign' that stands for an 'Object' through convention, norm or habit, without any resemblance to it.
Conventional
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire")
An holistic perspective considers each part of the whole as equally important, without the need of a granularity hierarchy (in time or space).
A molecule of a body can have role in the body evolution, without caring if its part of a specific organ and without specifying the time interval in which this role occurred.
This class allows the picking of parts without necessarily going trough a rigid hierarchy of spatial compositions (e.g. body > organ > cell > molecule) or temporal composition.
Holistic
A union of classes that categorize physicals under a holistic perspective: the interest is on the whole 4D object (process) and the role of its 4D parts (participants) without going further into specifying the spatial hierarchy or the temporal position of each part.
hasMember
Theory
The 'theory' is e.g. a proposition, a book or a paper whose subsymbols suggest in the mind of the interpreter an interpretant structure that can represent a 'physical'.
It is not an 'icon' (like a math equation), because it has no common resemblance or logical structure with the 'physical'.
In Peirce semiotics: legisignsymbolargument
A 'conventional' that stand for a 'physical'.
NanoMaterial
Nanomaterials are Materials possessing, at minimum, one external dimension measuring 1100nm
F
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/MolarGasConstant
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?r
MolarGasConstant
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ1 N1 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Gas_constant
Equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole (rather than energy per temperature increment per particle).
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02579
Δ
z
2+3 = 5
x^2 +3x = 5x
dv/dt = a
sin(x) = y
The class of 'mathematical's that stand for a statement of equality between two mathematical expressions.
Equation
An equation with variables can always be represented as:
f(v0, v1, ..., vn) = g(v0, v1, ..., vn)
where f is the left hand and g the right hand side expressions and v0, v1, ..., vn are the variables.
PowerDimension
SpeedDimension
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units. When the numerical factor of this product is one, the derived units are called coherent derived units. The base and coherent derived units of the SI form a coherent set, designated the set of coherent SI units.
SICoherentUnit
Solutions are characterized by the occurrence of Rayleigh scattering on light,
Solution
A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
RadiantFlux
T3 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05046
The radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RadiantFlux
http://dbpedia.org/page/Radiant_flux
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WB
Weber
Measurement unit for magnetic flux.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06666
m
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
A suspension of fine particles in the atmosphere.
Dust
hasSign
LiquidFoam
A foam of trapped gas in a liquid.
Division
The interpreter's internal representation of the object in a semiosis process.
Interpretant
t
Nucleus
Micro
Defines the Candela base unit in the SI system.
LuminousEfficacyOf540THzRadiation
https://physics.nist.gov/cgibin/cuu/Value?kcd
T+3 L1 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
The luminous efficacy of monochromatic radiation of frequency 540 × 10 12 Hz, K cd , is a technical constant that gives an exact numerical relationship between the purely physical characteristics of the radiant power stimulating the human eye (W) and its photobiological response defined by the luminous flux due to the spectral responsivity of a standard observer (lm) at a frequency of 540 × 10 12 hertz.
hasNumericalData
Punctuation
PureNumberQuantity
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
A pure number, typically the number of something.
1,
i,
π,
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
According to the SI brochure counting does not automatically qualify a quantity as an amount of substance.
This quantity is used only to describe the outcome of a counting process, without regard of the type of entities.
"There are also some quantities that cannot be described in terms of the seven base quantities of the SI, but have the nature of a count. Examples are a number of molecules, a number of cellular or biomolecular entities (for example copies of a particular nucleic acid sequence), or degeneracy in quantum mechanics. Counting quantities are also quantities with the associated unit one."
A type of sol in the form of one solid dispersed in liquid.
LiquidSol
"The unit one is the neutral element of any system of units – necessary and present automatically."
SI Brochure
DimensionOne
Array
T+3 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
The object, in Peirce semiotics.
Object
Here is assumed that the concept of 'object' is always relative to a 'semiotic' process. An 'object' does not exists per se, but it's always part of an interpretation.
The EMMO relies on strong reductionism, i.e. everything real is a formless collection of elementary particles: we give a meaning to real world entities only by giving them boundaries and defining them using 'sign's.
In this way the 'sign'ed entity become and 'object', and the 'object' is the basic entity needed in order to apply a logical formalism to the real world entities (i.e. we can speak of it through its sign, and use logics on it through its sign).
2
1E+9
g
URL to CODATA Internationally recommended 2018 values of physical constants.
codataEntry
https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants/index.html
Radian
Measure of plane angle.
Dimensionless measurement unit for plane angle.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RAD
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05036
Line
Subatomic
1E+1
Constant
π refers to the constant number ~3.14
A 'varaible' that stand for a well known constant.
da
Index
A 'Sign' that stands for an 'Object' due to causal continguity.
Smoke stands for a combustion process (a fire).
My facial expression stands for my emotional status.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00499
AtomicNumber
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AtomicNumber
Number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
http://dbpedia.org/page/Atomic_number
T3 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
In geometrical optics, vergence describes the curvature of optical wavefronts.
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Vergence
http://dbpedia.org/page/Vergence
lm
A 'Property' that cannot be univocally determined and depends on an agent (e.g. a human individual, a community) acting as blackbox.
The word subjective means that a nonwell defined or an unknown procedure is used for the definition of the property.
This happens due to e.g. the complexity of the object, the lack of a underlying model for the representation of the object, the nonwell specified meaning of the property symbols.
A 'SubjectiveProperty' cannot be used to univocally compare 'Object's.
e.g. you cannot evaluate the beauty of a person on objective basis.
SubjectiveProperty
The beauty of that girl.
The style of your clothing.
Quantities that are ratios of quantities of the same kind (for example length ratios and amount fractions) have the option of being expressed with units (m/m, mol/mol to aid the understanding of the quantity being expressed and also allow the use of SI prefixes, if this
is desirable (μm/m, nmol/mol).
 SI Brochure
FractionUnit
Unit for fractions of quantities of the same kind, to aid the understanding of the quantity being expressed.
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of atoms.
AtomisticModel
f(x) > 0
A relation which makes a nonequal comparison between two numbers or other mathematical expressions.
Inequality
Measurement unit for electric dipole moment.
CoulombMetre
hasSymbolData
CatalyticActivityDimension
Gy
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Bq
ModelledQuantitativeProperty
+
GasLiquidSuspension
Rain, spray.
A coarse dispersion of liquid in a gas continuum phase.
Centi
1E15
Np
The metre, symbol m, is the SI unit of length. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the speed of light in vacuum c to be 299792458 when expressed in the unit m s−1, where the second is defined in terms of ∆νCs.
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M
Metre
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03884
A material that undergoes chemical changes.
ReactiveMaterial
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERSEC
MetrePerSecond
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/metrePerSecondTime
SI coherent measurement unit for speed.
LiquidGasSuspension
Sparkling water
A coarse dispersion of gas in a liquid continuum phase.
ElectricCurrent
T0 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
http://dbpedia.org/page/Electric_current
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricCurrent
A flow of electric charge.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01927
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tonne
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06394
Tonne
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TON_M
A nonSI unit defined as 1000 kg.
ElectricChargeDimension
In the EMMO the relation of participation to a process falls under mereotopology.
Since topological connection means causality, then the only way for a real world object to participate to a process is to be a part of it.
A portion of a 'Process' that participates to the process with a specific role.
Participant
LengthFractionUnit
Unit for plane angle.
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two lengths.
1manifold
mereotopological
Mereotopology merges mereological and topological concepts and provides relations between wholes, parts, boundaries, etc.
The superclass for all EMMO mereotopological relations.
lx
Mega
IlluminanceDimension
license
Replaced by dcterms:license
N
MaterialRelation
An 'equation' that stands for a physical assumption specific to a material, and provides an expression for a 'physics_quantity' (the dependent variable) as function of other variables, physics_quantity or data (independent variables).
The LennardJones potential.
A force field.
An Hamiltonian.
A material_relation can e.g. return a predefined number, return a database query, be an equation that depends on other physics_quantities.
bdoMatch
https://github.com/TechnicalBuildingSystems/Ontologies/blob/master/BasicDataTypeOntology/ontology.ttl
URL to corresponding concept in the Basic Datatype Ontology (DBO)
A solid solution made of two or more component substances.
SolidSolution
LuminousIntensity
http://dbpedia.org/page/Luminous_intensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Length
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
A measure of the wavelengthweighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. It is based on the luminosity function, which is a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.
PhysicalLaw
hasConvention
Kilo
AmountFractionUnit
Unit for amount fraction.
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two amount of substance.
M
Reductionistic
A class devoted to categorize 'Physical's according to their granularity relations, first in terms of time evolution (Existent) and then in terms of their composition (State), up to the spatial atomistic element (Elementary).
Direct parthood is the relation used to build the class hierarchy (and the granularity hierarchy) for this perspective.
T
1E9
1E24
1
SIUnitSymbol
MagneticFluxDensityDimension
eV
DerivedQuantity
"Quantity, in a system of quantities, defined in terms of the base quantities of that system".
1
Observation
A 'Semiosis' that involves an 'Observer' that perceives another 'Physical' (the 'Object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'Property' (the 'Sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception.
A fluid in which a gas is ionized to a level where its electrical conductivity allows longrange electric and magnetic fields to dominate its behaviour.
Plasma
T+1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Proton
p
MathematicalOperator
EuclideanSpace
MeasuredQuantitativeProperty
Peta
A relation that isolates a proper part that extends itself in time within the overall lifetime of the whole, without covering the full spatial extension of the 4D whole (i.e. is not a temporal part).
hasSpatialPart
Hz
0.01
eV
barn
A unit that does not belong to any system of units.
OffSystemUnit
Zetta
definition
Human readable definition of a concept.
SolidSol
A type of sol in the form of one solid dispersed in another continuous solid.
kat
Mole
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03980
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOL
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol−1 and is called the Avogadro number. The amount of substance, symbol n, of a system is a measure of the number of specified elementary entities. An elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an electron, any other particle or specified group of particles.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
Vector
A colloid in which small particles (1 nm to 100 nm) are suspended in a continuum phase.
Sol
W
Siemens
Measurement unit for electrical conductance.
1
*
LiquidLiquidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of liquid in a liquid continuum phase.
Gradient

TimeDimension
T0 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
Curve
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
hasVariable
sr
0.1
Java
1
UTF8
A set of units that correspond to the base quantities in a system of units.
BaseUnit
SIMetricPrefix
MeasuredConstant
For a given unit system, measured constants are physical constants that are not used to define the unit system. Hence, these constants have to be measured and will therefore be associated with an uncertainty.
G
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/N
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04135
Newton
Measurement unit for force.
1
A language object is a symbolic object respecting a specific language syntactic rules (a wellformed formula).
Language
1E+21
Å
Python
Matrix
SINonCoherentDerivedUnit
A derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
Point
1
1
The union of classes of elementary particles that do not possess mass.
Massless
A Miixture is a material made up of two or more different substances which are physically (not chemically) combined.
Mixture
1