http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG_CCentiM
Cel.cm
°C⋅cm
`Degree Celsius Centimeter` is a C.G.S System unit for 'Length Temperature' expressed as cmdegC.
 QUDT
Degree Celsius Centimetre
DegreeCelsiusCentiMetre
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800007.
LightAndRadiationQuantity
CausalStructure
From Latin causa (“reason, sake, cause”), and from Latin struere (“arrange, assemble, build”).
/
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/UNITLESS
The subclass of measurement units with no physical dimension.
Refractive index
Plane angle
Number of apples
DimensionlessUnit
IUPACName
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DecaM3
dam3
dam³
1 000fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Decametre
CubicDecaMetre
Atom subclass for nobelium.
NobeliumAtom
76
A solvable set of one Physics Equation and one or more Materials Relations.
https://op.europa.eu/en/publicationdetail//publication/ec1455c3d7ca11e6ad7c01aa75ed71a1
MaterialsModel
A causal relation between the y effected and the x causing entities with intermediaries, where x isCauseOf y and not(y isCauseOf x).
isAntecedentOf
isPredecessorOf
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LuminousIntensity
714
A measure of the wavelengthweighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle. It is based on the luminosity function, which is a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye.
LuminousIntensity
An aerosol composed of liquid droplets in air or another gas.
LiquidAerosol
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroHPERM
uH.m1
μH/m
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit henry divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Microhenry Per Metre
MicroHenryPerMetre
HTZ
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZ
Hz
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hertz
SI unit for frequence.
The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications, such as the frequency of musical tones. The word "hertz" is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, who was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves.
 QUDT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02785
Hertz
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarVolume
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q487112
95
Volume per amount of substance.
MolarVolume
T1 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
A 'Graphical' that stands for a real world object that shows a recognizable pictorial pattern without being necessarily associated to a symbolic language.
A drawing of a cat.
A circle on a paper sheet.
The Mona Lisa.
Pictorial
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NCentiM
N.cm
N⋅cm
product of the SI derived unit newton and the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Newton Centimetre
NewtonCentiMetre
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q39078574
99.1
ParticleConcentration
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DoseEquivalent
1083.1
A dose quantity used in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
DoseEquivalent
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LossFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q79468728
654
Inverse of the quality factor.
LossFactor
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/UNITLESS
Represents the number 1, used as an explicit unit to say something has no units.
"The unit one is the neutral element of any system of units – necessary and present automatically."
 SI Brochure
Refractive index or volume fraction.
Typically used for ratios of two units whos dimensions cancels out.
Unitless
UnitOne
The inverse relation for hasProperPart.
isProperPartOf
A standalone simulation, where a single physics equation is solved.
StandaloneModelSimulation
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89408862
924
RelativeActivityOfSolute
ActivityOfSolute
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERCentiM2DAY
J.cm2.d1
J/(cm²⋅day)
Radiant energy per 10⁻⁴ SI unit area over a period of one day.
 QUDT
Joules per square centimetre per day
JoulePerSquareCentiMetrePerDay
LaserCutting
JosephsonConstantUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQPERKiloGM
Bq.kg1
Bq/kg
Bq/kg
"Becquerel per Kilogram" is used to describe radioactivity, which is often expressed in becquerels per unit of volume or weight, to express how much radioactive material is contained in a sample.
 QUDT
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsspecific_radioactivitybecquerel_per_kilogram.cfm
Becquerel per Kilogram
BecquerelPerKilogram
83
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERHR
J.h1
J/hr
SI derived unit joule divided by the 3600 times the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Joule Per Hour
JoulePerHour
P
An holistic perspective considers each part of the whole as equally important, without the need to position the parts within a hierarchy (in time or space). The interest is on the whole object and on its parts (how they contribute to the whole, i.e. their roles), without going further into specifying the spatial hierarchy or the temporal position of each part.
This class allows the picking of parts without necessarily going trough a rigid hierarchy of spatial compositions (e.g. body > organ > cell > molecule) or temporal composition. This is inline with the transitive nature of parthood, as it is usually defined in literature.
The holistic perspective is not excluding the reductionistic perspective, on the contrary it can be considered its complement.
The union of classes whole and part.
A perspective characterized by the belief that some mereological parts of a whole (holistic parts) are intimately interconnected and explicable only by reference to the whole and vice versa.
A molecule of a body can have role in the body evolution, without caring if its part of a specific organ and without specifying the time interval in which this role occurred.
A product is a role that can be fulfilled by many objects, but always requires a process to which the product participates and from which it is generated.
Wholistic
Holistic
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/InfiniteMultiplicationFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99440487
1078.2
In nuclear physics, the multiplication factor for an infinite medium.
InfiniteMultiplicationFactor
PerAreaTimeUnit
A manufacturing in which an adherent layer of amorphous material is applied to a workpiece.
DIN 8580:2020
Beschichten
CoatingManufacturing
44.955908
A estimator that uses modelling to declare a property of an object (i.e. infer a property from other properties).
Modeller
T3 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ1 N0 J0
1.0
The mass of an atom in the ground state.
104.1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00496
Since the nucleus account for nearly all of the total mass of atoms (with the electrons and nuclear binding energy making minor contributions), the atomic mass measured in Da has nearly the same value as the mass number.
The atomic mass is often expressed as an average of the commonly found isotopes.
AtomicMass
247.07035
Atom subclass for barium.
BariumAtom
KEL
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/K
K
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Kelvin
The kelvin, symbol K, is the SI unit of thermodynamic temperature. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the Boltzmann constant k to be 1.380649×10−23 when expressed in the unit J K−1, which is equal to kg m2 s−2 K−1, where the kilogram, metre and second are defined in terms of h, c and ∆νCs.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin?oldid=495075694
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03374
Kelvin
1.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM2
dm2
dm²
0.1fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
Square Decimetre
SquareDeciMetre
A variable is a symbolic object that stands for any other mathematical object, such as number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, an element of a set.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable_(mathematics)
Coupled
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3265048
430.1
At a point in a fluid, the product of mass density and velocity.
MassFlow
https://qudt.org/schema/qudt/Quantity
A quantifiable property of a phenomenon, body, or substance.
length
Rockwell C hardness
electric resistance
measurand
quantity
VIM defines a quantity as a "property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has a magnitude that can be expressed as a number and a reference".
A quantity in EMMO is a property and therefore only addresses the first part of the VIM definition (that is a property of a phenomenon, body, or substance). The second part (that it can be expressed as a number and a reference) is syntactic and addressed by emmo:QuantityValue.
Measurand
Quantity
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroOHM
uOhm
μΩ
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit ohm
 QUDT
MicroOhm
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERKiloGMKM3
J.kg1.K.m3
J/(kg⋅K⋅m³)
Joule per Kilogram Kelvin Cubic Metre
JoulePerKilogramKelvinCubicMetre
AmountPerAreaUnit
HAR
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HA
har
http://dbpedia.org/page/Hectare
A nonSI metric unit of area defined as the square with 100metre sides.
The customary metric unit of land area, equal to 100 ares. One hectare is a square hectometer, that is, the area of a square 100 meters on each side: exactly 10 000 square meters or approximately 107 639.1 square feet, 11 959.9 square yards, or 2.471 054 acres.
 QUDT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hectare
Hectare
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q865821
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130424
520.4
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02772
HelmholtzFreeEnergy
HelmholtzEnergy
Atom subclass for ytterbium.
YtterbiumAtom
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ElectromagneticPermeabilityOfVacuum
626.1
The DBpedia and UIPAC Gold Book definitions (http://dbpedia.org/page/Vacuum_permeability, https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04504) are outdated since May 20, 2019. It is now a measured constant.
The value of magnetic permeability in a classical vacuum.
PermeabilityOfVacuum
VacuumMagneticPermeability
1.0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1335249
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030526
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3514532
315
parameter characterizing the response to a step input of a first‑order, linear time‑invariant system
TimeConstant
BlueTopAntiQuark
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERM2
C.m2
C/m2
C/m²
Coulomb Per Square Meter (C/m²) is a unit in the category of Electric charge surface density. It is also known as coulombs per square meter, coulomb per square metre, coulombs per square metre, coulomb/square meter, coulomb/square metre. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Per Square Meter (C/m2) has a dimension of L⁻²TI where L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Coulomb per Square Metre
CoulombPerSquareMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERM3
cm3.m3
cm3/m3
cm³/m³
volume ratio consisting of the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Cubic Metre
CubicCentiMetrePerCubicMetre
0.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/FineStructureConstant
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02389
A fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
FineStructureConstant
1.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NM
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/newtonMetre
"Torque" is the tendency of a force to cause a rotation, is the product of the force and the distance from the center of rotation to the point where the force is applied. Torque has the same units as work or energy, but it is a different physical concept. To stress the difference, scientists measure torque in newton meters rather than in joules, the SI unit of work. One newton meter is approximately 0.737562 pound foot.
 QUDT
Note that the physical dimension is the same as for Joule.
NewtonMetre
An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (a liquidliquid heterogeneous mixture).
Mayonnaise, milk.
Emulsion
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by uniaxial or multiaxial compressive stress.
DIN 85831:200309
A proper part relation with domain restricted to items.
hasPortionPart
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThomsonCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105801233
1223
quotient of Thomson heat power developed, and the electric current and temperature difference
ThomsonCoefficient
PlasmaCutting
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERKiloGMSEC2
m3.(kg.s2)1
m3.kg1.s2
m3/(kg.s2)
m³/(kg⋅s²)
Cubic Metre per Kilogram Square Second
CubicMetrePerKilogramSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LPERK
L.K1
L/K
L/K
unit litre divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
Litre Per Kelvin
LitrePerKelvin
A semiotic object that is recognised by an interpreter (a cogniser) when establishing a connection between the object and an icon.
A physical phenomenon that is connected to an equation by a scientist.
Cognised
The EMMO conceptualises the world using the primitive concepts of causality and parthood. Parthood is about the composition of world entities starting from other more fundamental entities. Causality is about the interactions between world entities.
The quantum is the smallest indivisible part of any world entity. Quantum individuals are the fundamental causal constituents of the universe, since it is implied that causality originates from quantumtoquantum interactions. Quantums are nodimensional, and their aggregation makes spacetime emerge from their causal structure. Causality between macro entities (i.e. entities made of more than one quantum) is explained as the sum of the causality relations between their quantum constituents.
The fundamental distinction between world entities is direct causality selfconnectedness: a world entity can be selfconnected xor not selfconnected depending on the causality network of its fundamental components.
Void regions do not exist in the EMMO, or in other words there is no spacetime without entities, since space and time are measured quantities following a causality relation between entities (spacetime emerges as relational property not as a selfstanding entity).
Entities are not placed in space or time: space and time are always relative between entities and are measured. In other words, space and time relations originates from causality interactions.
The disjoint union of the Item and Collection classes.
The class of all the OWL individuals declared by EMMO as standing for world entities.
EMMO entities dimensionality is related to their mereocausal structures. From the nodimensional quantum entity, we introduce time dimension with the elementary concept, and the spacetime with the causal system concept.
The EMMO conceptualisation does not allow the existence of space without a temporal dimension, the latter coming from a causal relation between entities.
For this reason, the EMMO entities that are not quantum or elementaries, may be considered to be always spatiotemporal. The EMMO poses no constraints to the number of spatial dimensions for a causal system (except being higher than one).
EMMO
GluonType1
C34
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOL
mol
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Mole_%28unit%29
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol−1 and is called the Avogadro number. The amount of substance, symbol n, of a system is a measure of the number of specified elementary entities. An elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an electron, any other particle or specified group of particles.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mole_(unit)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03980
Mole
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERDAY
dm3.d1
dm3/d
dm³/day
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit for time day
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre Per Day
CubicDeciMetrePerDay
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricConductivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4593291
643
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01245
Measure of a material's ability to conduct an electric current.
Conductivity is equeal to the resiprocal of resistivity.
Conductivity
ElectricConductivity
1000.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG_CPERK
Cel.K1
Cel/K
°C/K
unit with the name Degree Celsius divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
Degree Celsius Per Kelvin
DegreeCelsiusPerKelvin
1e06
Physical constants are categorised into "exact" and measured constants.
With "exact" constants, we refer to physical constants that have an exact numerical value after the revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_physical_constants
PhysicalConstant
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JM2PERKiloGM
J.m2.kg1
j⋅m²/kg
Joule Square Metre per Kilogram
JouleSquareMetrePerKilogram
0.0
Perspective
From medieval Latin perspectiva ‘(science of) optics’, from perspect ‘looked at closely’, from the verb perspicere, from per ‘through’ + specere ‘to look’.
1.0
0.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricDipoleMoment
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q735135
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211135
66
An electric dipole, vector quantity of magnitude equal to the product of the positive charge and the distance between the charges and directed from the negative charge to the positive charge.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01929
ElectricDipoleMoment
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERHR
g.h1
g/hr
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
Gram Per Hour
GramPerHour
A conventional that provides no possibility to infer the characteristics of the object to which it refers.
A random generated id for a product.
Uncoded
Software is usually used as a generic term for programs. However, in its broadest sense it can refer to all information (i.e., both programs and data) in electronic form and can provide a distinction from hardware, which refers to computers or other electronic systems on which software can exist and be use.
Here we explicitly include in the definition also all the data (e.g. source code, script files) that takes part to the building of the executable, are necessary to the execution of a program or that document it for the users.
http://www.linfo.org/program.html
Atom subclass for radium.
RadiumAtom
A fluid in which a gas is ionized to a level where its electrical conductivity allows longrange electric and magnetic fields to dominate its behaviour.
Plasma
MassPerLengthTimeUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VPERCentiM
V.cm1
V/cm
derived SI unit volt divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Volt Per Centimetre
VoltPerCentiMetre
ThermalConductanceUnit
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Kerma
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1739288
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950136
1086.1
Kinetic energy released per mass.
Kerma
IsothermalConversion
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q88523106
96.1
Internal energy per amount of substance.
MolarInternalEnergy
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERPASEC
Pa1.s1
/(Pa⋅s)
Reciprocal Pascal per second
ReciprocalPascalPerSecond
CentrifugalCasting
3600.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassFraction
911
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03722
Mass of a constituent divided by the total mass of all constituents in the mixture.
MassFraction
https://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ComptonWavelength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1145377
1020
Quotient of the Planck constant and the product of the mass of the particle and the speed of light in vacuum.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_wavelength
ComptonWavelength
A unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
A nonSI coherent can be expressed in terms of its corresponding SI coherent unit, as
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
where `multiplier` and `offset` are specified via the 'hasConversionMultiplier' and 'hasConversionOffset' data properties, respectively.
SINonCoherentUnit
A coarse dispersion of liquid in a solid continuum phase.
SolidLiquidSuspension
A manufacturing in which workpieces are produced from solid raw parts through permanent deformation, provided that neither material is added nor removed.
The mass of the raw part is equal to the mass of the finished part.
DIN 8580:2020
Forming
Umformen
ReshapeManufacturing
Irradiate
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/NewtonianConstantOfGravitation
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02695
Physical constant in Newton's law of gravitation and in Einstein's general theory of relativity.
NewtonianConstantOfGravity
2manifold
TwoManifold
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/TotalAngularMomentumQuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1141095
1013.6
Quantum number in an atom describing the magnitude of total angular momentum J.
TotalAngularMomentumQuantumNumber
Superclass for all units prefixed with "hecto" (100).
HectoPrefixedUnit
0.0
0.01745329
isOvercrossedBy
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030524
324
Inverse of the time constant of an exponentially varying quantity.
DampingCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/KermaRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99713105
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811228
1086.2
Time derivative of kerma.
KermaRate
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERMIN
dm3.min3
dm3/min3
dm³/min
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit for time minute
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre Per Minute
CubicDeciMetrePerMinute
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERM3
mol.m3
mol/m3
mol/m³
The SI derived unit for amountofsubstance concentration is the mole/cubic meter.
 QUDT
Mole per Cubic Metre
MolePerCubicMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ActivityConcentration
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q423263
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950109
1029
Activity per unit volume of the sample.
ActivityConcentration
VolumetricActivity
VolumicActivity
ActivityDensity
Elementary Multiperspective Material Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
Access, DE
Fraunhofer IWM, DE
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
SINTEF, NO
University of Bologna, IT
Adham Hashibon
Emanuele Ghedini
Georg Schmitz
Gerhard Goldbeck
Jesper Friis
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
EMMC ASBL
Elementary Multiperspective Material Ontology (EMMO)
Contacts:
Gerhard Goldbeck
Goldbeck Consulting Ltd (UK)
email: gerhard@goldbeckconsulting.com
Emanuele Ghedini
University of Bologna (IT)
email: emanuele.ghedini@unibo.it
The EMMO should be reasoned in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy in Protege (ctrl+R hotkey). It is tested with both the HermiT (preferred) and HermiT reasoners.
1.0.0beta6
https://github.com/emmorepo/EMMO/raw/master/doc/emmologo.png
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERSEC2
m3.s2
m3/s2
m³/s²
`Cubic Meter per Square Second` is a C.G.S System unit for `Standard Gravitational Parameter` expressed as m³/s²
 QUDT
Cubic Metre per Square Second
CubicMetrePerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PASECPERM
Pa.s.m1
Pa⋅s/m
Pascal Second Per Meter (Pas/m) is a unit in the category of Specific acoustic impedance. It is also known as pascalsecond/meter. Pascal Second Per Meter has a dimension of ML²T⁻¹ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. It essentially the same as the corresponding standard SI unit kg/m2· s.
 QUDT
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsspecific_acoustic_impedancepascal_second_per_meter.cfm
Pascal Second Per Metre
PascalSecondPerMetre
A26
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CM
C.m
C⋅m
Coulomb Meter (Cm) is a unit in the category of Electric dipole moment. It is also known as atomic unit, u.a., au, ua. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Meter (Cm) has a dimension of LTI where L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
It is also known as atomic unit, u.a., au, ua. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Meter (Cm) has a dimension of LTI where L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
CoulombMetre
The superclass of all mereological EMMO relations.
The EMMO adheres to Atomistic General Extensional Mereology (AGEM).
mereological
T2 L0 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
Atom subclass for magnesium.
MagnesiumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticTension
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q77993836
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211157
637.2
Scalar quantity equal to the line integral of the magnetic field strength H along a specified path linking two points a and b.
MagneticTension
An object that enables or facilitate an agent in the execution of a process that modifies the surrounding environment.
Tool
hasScatteredPortion
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADPERM
rad.m1
rad/m
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Radian per Metre
RadianPerMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LinearDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q56298294
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130311
46
Mass per length.
LinearDensity
LineicMass
LinearMassDensity
GreenCharmQuark
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LinearIonization
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98690755
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=39503115
1058
Differential quotient of q with respect to l, where q is the average total charge of all positive ions produced by an ionizing charged particle over a path l, divided by the elementary charge.
LinearIonization
FormingJoin
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERDAY
g.d1
g/day
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit day
 QUDT
Gram Per Day
GramPerDay
Atom subclass for thallium.
ThalliumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalResistance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q899628
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130445
512
Thermodynamic temperature difference divided by heat flow rate.
The name “thermal resistance” and the symbol R are used in building technology to designate thermal insulance.
ThermalResistance
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERSEC
m2.s1
m2/s
m²/s
Square Metres per second is the SI derived unit of angular momentum, defined by distance or displacement in metres multiplied by distance again in metres and divided by time in seconds. The unit is written in symbols as m2/s or m2u00b7s1 or m2s1. It may be better understood when phrased as "metres per second times metres", i.e. the momentum of an object with respect to a position.
 QUDT
Square Metre per Second
SquareMetrePerSecond
1.0
1e06
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERHZ2
m2.Hz2
m²/Hz²
Square metres per square Hertz
SquareMetrePerSquareHertz
Conversion of materials and assembly of components for the manufacture of products
DIN EN 14943:200603
An expression that provides information about the element types that constiture a molecule or a molecular substance and their number, together with simple information about the connectivity of its groups by using parenthesis or by goruping element names according to its molecular structure.
CondensedFormula
The interpretation of the term "matter" is not univocal. Several concepts are labelled with this term, depending on the field of science. The concept mass is sometimes related to the term "matter", even if the former refers to a physical quantity (precisely defined by modern physics) while the latter is a type that qualifies a physical entity.
It is possible to identify more than one concept that can be reasonably labelled with the term "matter". For example, it is possible to label as matter only the entities that are made up of atoms. Or more generally, we can be more finegrained and call "matter" the entities that are made up of protons, neutrons or electrons, so that we can call matter also a neutron radiation or a cathode ray.
A more fundamental approach, that we embrace for the EMMO, considers matter as entities that are made of fermions (i.e. quarks and leptons). This would exclude particles like the W and Z bosons that possess some mass, but are not fermions.
Antimatter is a subclass of matter.
A physical object made of fermionic quantum parts.
A matter entity exclude the presence of (real) fundamental bosons parts. However, it implies the presence of virtual bosons that are responsible of the interactions between the (real) fundamental fermions.
Matter includes ordinary and antimatter. It is possible to have entities that are made of particle and antiparticles (e.g. mesons made of a quark and an antiquark pair) so that it is possible to have entities that are somewhat heterogeneous with regards to this distinction.
PhysicalSubstance
Matter
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERKiloGM
mol.kg1
mol/kg
mol/kg
Mole Per Kilogram (mol/kg) is a unit of Molality
 QUDT
Mole per Kilogram
MolePerKilogram
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q217361
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031015
https://dbpedia.org/page/Group_velocity
323.2
Speed with which the envelope of a wave propagates in space.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Group_velocity
GroupSpeed
GroupVelocity
Atom subclass for lawrencium.
LawrenciumAtom
IndiumSymbol
AreaTemperatureUnit
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/IonTransportNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q331854
946
Faction of electrical current carried by given ionic species.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.I03181
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06489
CurrentFraction
TransferrenceNumber
IonTransportNumber
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERDAY
m3.d1
m³/day
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit day
 QUDT
Cubic Metre Per Day
CubicMetrePerDay
SIAcceptedPrefixedUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERM3
dm3.m3
dm3/m3
dm³/m³
volume ratio consisting of the 0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre Per Cubic Metre
CubicDeciMetrePerCubicMetre
1
326.1
Decrease in magnitude of any kind of flux through a medium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attenuation
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00515
Extinction
Attenuation
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LPERSEC
L.s1
L/s
L/s
unit litre divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Litre Per Second
LitrePerSecond
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130130
https://dbpedia.org/page/Radius_of_curvature
31.12
Radius of the osculating circle of a planar curve at a particular point of the curve.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radius_of_curvature
RadiusOfCurvature
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERL
g.L1
g/L
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit litre
 QUDT
Gram Per Litre
GramPerLitre
1.157407e08
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WSEC
W.s
W⋅s
product of the SI derived unit watt and SI base unit second
 QUDT
Watt Second
WattSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/REVPERMIN
{#}.min1
rev/min
"Revolution per Minute" is a unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as rev/min.
 QUDT
Revolution per Minute
RevolutionPerMinute
AreaSquareTimeUnit
63.546
EndTile
:isCauseOf owl:propertyDisjointWith :overlaps
Due to the transitivity characteristic of :overlaps subclasses, that makes it a composite property.
1e21
1000000.0
Holistic
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire").
A
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RelativePressureCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q74761852
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130430
53.3
RelativePressureCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q45760
Material property which describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature.
ThermalExpansionCoefficient
CoefficientOfThermalExpansion
An interpreter who establish the connection between an index sign and an object according to a causal contiguity.
Someone who deduces an emotional status of a persona according to facial expression.
Someone who deduces the occurring of a physical phenomenon through other phenomena.
Deducer
T+3 L0 M1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroGM
ug
μg
0.000000001fold of the SI base unit kilogram
 QUDT
MicroGram
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAM3PERSEC
Pa.m3.s1
Pa⋅m³/s
product out of the SI derived unit pascal and the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Pascal Cubic Metre Per Second
PascalCubicMetrePerSecond
ErbiumSymbol
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HallCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q997439
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=5210902
1219
The relation between electric field strength and current density in an isotropic conductor.
HallCoefficient
A workflow whose tasks are tiles of a sequence.
SerialWorkflow
T2 L+4 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q69427512
Energy per amount of substance.
MolarEnergy
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/EVPERM
eV.m1
eV/m
eV/m
unit electronvolt divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Electronvolt Per Metre
ElectronvoltPerMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERM2SEC
m2.s1
/(m²⋅s)
Reciprocal Square Metre Second
ReciprocalSquareMetreSecond
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76378940
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130462
530
Ratio of the mass of water vapour to the mass of dry air in a given volume of air.
The mixing ratio at saturation is denoted xsat.
MassRatioOfWaterVapourToDryGas
MixingRatio
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricChargeDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q69425629
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211107
63
Electric charge per volume.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00988
VolumeElectricCharge
ElectricChargeDensity
T2 L+3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AtomicNumber
Number of protons in an atomic nucleus.
101.1
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00499
AtomicNumber
LeadSymbol
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/EnergyFluence
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98538612
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950117
1046
In nuclear physics, incident radiant energy per crosssectional area.
EnergyFluence
A liquid solution in which the solvent is water.
AqueousSolution
A whole with temporal parts of its same type.
TemporallyRedundant
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADPERMIN
rad.min1
rad/min
rad/min
Radian Per Minute (rad/min) is a unit in the category of Angular velocity. It is also known as radians per minute, radian/minute. Radian Per Minute (rad/min) has a dimension of aT1 where T is time. It can be converted to the corresponding standard SI unit rad/s by multiplying its value by a factor of 0.0166666666667.
 QUDT
Radian per Minute
RadianPerMinute
1.0
An object which is an holistic spatial part of a process.
A student during an examination.
Participant
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2HZ2
m2.Hz2
m²⋅Hz²
Square Metres square Hertz
SquareMetreSquareHertz
A temporal relation between two entities occurs when the two entities are in a one directional causality relation. The idea is that a temporal relation always implies a onedirectional causality between two entities, leading to a asymmetric relation.
This means that the causing entity can be in direct and optionally indirect causality relation with the effect entity. On the contrary, the effect entity cannot be in any causal relation (direct or indirect) with the causing entity.
A time contact occurs when x isDirectCause y and not(y isCauseOf x).
Each pair of entities in direct causality relation is either in hasNext or hasTwoWayCauseWith relation. The two are mutually exclusive.
This relation is asymmetric and irreflexive.
isBefore
hasNext
TemperatureAreaPerMassTimeUnit
Atom subclass for molybdenum.
MolybdenumAtom
Antimatter is matter that is composed only of the antiparticles of those that constitute ordinary matter.
This branch is not expanded due to the limited use of such entities.
AntiMatter
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HeatCapacity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q179388
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130447
https://dbpedia.org/page/Heat_capacity
515
Quantity C = dQ/dT, when the thermodynamic temperature of a system is increased by dT as a result of the addition of a amount of heat dQ, under given condition.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02753
Examples of condition might be constant volume or constant pressure for a gas.
HeatCapacity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ParticleNumberDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98601569
1062.1
Mean number of particles per volume.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04262
ParticleNumberDensity
0.0
The concept is based on the common usage of the word "particle", that is used to identify both a specific state of an elementary particle (a quantum) and both the chain of quantums that expresses the evolution of the particle in time.
The union of Elementary and Quantum classes.
The class of entities that have no spatial structure.
CausalParticle
Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with one or more supplementary devices.
 VIM
measuring instrument
A measuring instrument that can be used alone is a measuring system.
MeasuringInstrument
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalConductivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q487005
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130438
https://dbpedia.org/page/Thermal_conductivity
59
At a point fixed in a medium with a temperature field, scalar quantity λ characterizing the ability of the medium to transmit heat through a surface element containing that point: φ = −λ grad T, where φ is the density of heat flow rate and T is thermodynamic temperature.
In an anisotropic medium, thermal conductivity is a tensor quantity.
ThermalConductivity
T2 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERHR
dm3.h1
dm3/h
dm³/hr
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre Per Hour
CubicDeciMetrePerHour
VolumePerMassUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERSEC
dm3.s1
dm3/s
dm³/s
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit for time second
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre Per Second
CubicDeciMetrePerSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG2
deg2
°²
A square degree is a nonSI unit measure of solid angle. It is denoted in various ways, including deg, sq. deg. and °². Just as degrees are used to measure parts of a circle, square degrees are used to measure parts of a sphere. Analogous to one degree being equal to π /180 radians, a square degree is equal to (π /180) or about 1/3283 steradian. The number of square degrees in a whole sphere is or approximately 41 253 deg. This is the total area of the 88 constellations in the list of constellations by area. For example, observed from the surface of the Earth, the Moon has a diameter of approximately 0.5°, so it covers a solid angle of approximately 0.196 deg, which is 4.8 × 10 of the total sky sphere.
 QUDT
Square degree
SquareDegree
A chain of linked physics based model simulations, where equations are solved sequentially.
LinkedModelsSimulation
application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or achieve an objective
EN 1660311:201911
1.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificHeatCapacity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q487756
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130448
https://dbpedia.org/page/Specific_heat_capacity
516.1
Heat capacity divided by mass.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_heat_capacity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05800
SpecificHeatCapacity
A semiotic relation connecting a conventional sign to the interpreter (declarer) in a declaration process.
hasDeclarer
DysprosiumSymbol
A 'Physical' which is a tessellation of 'State' temporal direct parts.
'Existent' is the EMMO class to be used for representing real world physical objects under a reductionistic perspective (i.e. objects come from the composition of subpart objects, both in time and space).
'Existent' class collects all individuals that stand for physical objects that can be structured in well defined temporal subparts called states, through the temporal direct parthood relation.
This class provides a first granularity hierarchy in time, and a way to axiomatize tessellation principles for a specific whole with a nontransitivity relation (direct parthood) that helps to retain the granularity levels.
e.g. a car, a supersaturated gas with nucleating nanoparticles, an atom that becomes ionized and then recombines with an electron.
An 'Existent' individual stands for a real world object for which the ontologist wants to provide univocal tessellation in time.
By definition, the tiles are represented by 'State's individual.
Tiles are related to the 'Existent' through temporal direct parthood, enforcing nontransitivity and inversefunctionality.
Being hasTemporalDirectPart a proper parthood relation, there cannot be 'Existent' made of a single 'State'.
Moreover, due to inverse functionality, a 'State' can be part of only one 'Existent', preventing overlapping between 'Existent's.
true
Existent
DropForging
0.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERNanoM
/nm
nm1
/nm
Per Nanometer Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /nm.
 QUDT
Reciprocal Nanometre
ReciprocalNanoMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERK
cm3.K1
cm3/K
cm³/K
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Kelvin
CubicCentiMetrePerKelvin
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2MSR
W.m2.m1.sr1
W/m²⋅m⋅sr
Watts per square metre per metre per steradian
WattPerSquareMetrePerMetrePerSteradian
0.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroM3PERM3
um3.m3
µm³/m³
Cubic micrometre per cubic metre
CubicMicroMetrePerCubicMetre
0.0
ParallelWorkflow
OxygenSymbol
Atom subclass for carbon.
CarbonAtom
QuarticLengthPerTimeUnit
Superclass for all units prefixed with "kilo" (1000).
KiloPrefixedUnit
Power transferred per unit area.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intensity_(physics)
Intensity
A soft, solid or solidlike colloid consisting of two or more components, one of which is a liquid, present in substantial quantity.
Gel
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Weight
49.2
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06668
Force of gravity acting on a body.
Weight
Atom subclass for sodium.
SodiumAtom
LUX
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LUX
lx
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lux
SI unit for illuminance.
The SI unit for measuring the illumination (illuminance) of a surface. One lux is defined as an illumination of one lumen per square meter or 0.0001 phot. In considering the various light units, it's useful to think about light originating at a point and shining upon a surface. The intensity of the light source is measured in candelas; the total light flux in transit is measured in lumens (1 lumen = 1 candelau·steradian); and the amount of light received per unit of surface area is measured in lux (1 lux = 1 lumen/square meter). One lux is equal to approximately 0.09290 foot candle.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lux?oldid=494700274
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03651
Lux
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Distance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q126017
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1020324
https://dbpedia.org/page/Distance
31.8
Shortest path length between two points in a metric space.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance
Distance is the norm of Displacement.
Distance
Atom subclass for seaborgium.
SeaborgiumAtom
A semiotic relation that connects a semiotic object to a property in a declaration process.
hasProperty
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JMPERMOL
J.m.mol1
J⋅m/mol
`Joule Meter per Mole` is a unit for 'Length Molar Energy' expressed as J · m · mol⁻¹.
 QUDT
Joule Metre per Mole
JouleMetrePerMole
A function defined using functional notation.
y = f(x)
A mathematical relation that relates each element in the domain (X) to exactly one element in the range (Y).
FunctionDefinition
MathematicalFunction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q622669
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8013132
Ratio of void volume and total volume of a porous material.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04762
Porosity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Speed
38.2
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05852
Length per unit time.
Speed in the absolute value of the velocity.
Speed
RubidiumSymbol
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q92020547
430.3
Mass increment per time.
MassChangeRate
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MoleFraction
The amount of a constituent divided by the total amount of all constituents in a mixture.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00296
MoleFraction
AmountFraction
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SPERCentiM
S.cm1
S/cm
SI derived unit Siemens divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Siemens Per Centimetre
SiemensPerCentiMetre
unit of electric charge relative to mass
AmpereHourPerKilogram
EuropiumSymbol
GluonType5
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERPA
Pa1
/Pa
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal?oldid=492989202
Reciprocal Pascal
ReciprocalPascal
1e06
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Width
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q35059
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130120
31.2
Length in a given direction regarded as horizontal.
The terms breadth and width are often used by convention, as distinguished from length and from height or thickness.
Breadth
Width
BariumSymbol
1.0
MagneticReluctanceUnit
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ShearModulus
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q461466
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130368
419.2
Ratio of shear stress to the shear strain.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05635
ShearModulus
ModulusOfRigidity
Probability is a dimensionless quantity that can attain values between 0 and 1; zero denotes the impossible event and 1 denotes a certain event.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04855
The propability for a certain outcome, is the ratio between the number of events leading to the given outcome and the total number of events.
Probability
1.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERM2DAY
g.m2.d1
g/(m²⋅day)
A metric unit of volume over time indicating the amount generated across one square meter over a day.
 QUDT
grams per square metre per day
GramPerSquareMetrePerDay
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularMomentum
411
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00353
Measure of the extent and direction an object rotates about a reference point.
AngularMomentum
1e09
C81
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RAD
rad
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Radian
Measure of plane angle.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radian?oldid=492309312
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05036
Dimensionless measurement unit for plane angle.
Radian
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERHR
m.h1
m/h
m/h
Metre per hour is a metric unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (Vector (geometry)). Its symbol is m/h or mu00b7h1 (not to be confused with the imperial unit symbol mph. By definition, an object travelling at a speed of 1 m/h for an hour would move 1 metre.
 QUDT
Metre per Hour
MetrePerHour
T6 L+4 M+2 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERHA
m3.har1
m^3/ha
Cubic Metre per Hectare
CubicMetrePerHectare
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2PERCentiM3
cm2.cm3
cm²/cm³
Square centimetres per cubic centimetre
SquareCentiMetrePerCubicCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VPERK
V.K1
V/K
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Volt per Kelvin
VoltPerKelvin
A construction language used to write configuration files.
.ini files
Files in the standard .config directory on Unix systems.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Configuration_file#Configuration_languages
ConfigurationLanguage
The universe is considered as a causally selfconnected object, encompassing all other objects. For this reason is unique.
universe
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricCurrentDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q234072
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211111
68
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_density
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01928
Electric current divided by the crosssectional area it is passing through.
AreicElectricCurrent
CurrentDensity
ElectricCurrentDensity
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two pressures.
PressureFractionUnit
SIE
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/S
S
SI unit for electrical conductance.
Siemens is the SI unit of electric conductance, susceptance, and admittance. The most important property of a conductor is the amount of current it will carry when a voltage is applied. Current flow is opposed by resistance in all circuits, and by also by reactance and impedance in alternating current circuits. Conductance, susceptance, and admittance are the inverses of resistance, reactance, and impedance, respectively. To measure these properties, the siemens is the reciprocal of the ohm. In other words, the conductance, susceptance, or admittance, in siemens, is simply 1 divided by the resistance, reactance or impedance, respectively, in ohms. The unit is named for the German electrical engineer Werner von Siemens (18161892).
 QUDT
S = A/V = F/s
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siemens_(unit)
Siemens
T0 L3 M0 I+1 Θ0 N1 J0
PhotochemicalProcesses
Curve
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADM2PERMOL
rad.m2.mol1
rad⋅m²/mol
Radian Square Metre per Mole
RadianSquareMetrePerMole
0.0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1166093
109.3
Absolute value of the magnetic moment of a nucleus.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04236
NuclearMagneton
Enforcing the fact that an entity cannot cause itself.
107.8682
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERSEC
deg.s1
deg/s
°/s
"Degree per Second" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/s.
 QUDT
Degree per Second
DegreePerSecond
MassPerAmountUnit
1e09
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MeanLifetime
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1758559
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950113
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8810447
1025
Reciprocal of the decay constant λ.
MeanLifeTime
MeanDurationOfLife
0.01666667
30
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CDPERM2
cd.m2
cd/m2
cd/m²
The candela per square metre (cd/m²) is the derived SI unit of luminance. The unit is based on the candela, the SI unit of luminous intensity, and the square metre, the SI unit of area. Nit (nt) is a deprecated nonSI name also used for this unit (1 nit = 1 cd/m²). As a measure of light emitted per unit area, this unit is frequently used to specify the brightness of a display device. Most consumer desktop liquid crystal displays have luminances of 200 to 300 cd/m²; the sRGB spec for monitors targets 80 cd/m2. HDTVs range from 450 to about 1000 cd/m2. Typically, calibrated monitors should have a brightness of 120 cd/m². Nit is believed to come from the Latin word nitere, to shine.
 QUDT
candela per square metre
CandelaPerSquareMetre
1.0
Z
69
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1450516
Temperature below which quantum effects dominate.
CriticalTemperature
An icon that mimics the spatial or temporal shape of the object.
A geographical map that imitates the shape of the landscape and its properties at a specific historical time.
An icon that focus on WHERE/WHEN the object is, in the sense of spatial or temporal shape.
The subclass of icon inspired by Peirceian category a) the image, which depends on a simple quality (e.g. picture).
ResemblanceIcon
Sm
A physical made of more than one symbol sequentially arranged.
The word "cat" considered as a collection of 'symbol's respecting the rules of english language.
In this example the 'symbolic' entity "cat" is not related to the real cat, but it is only a word (like it would be to an italian person that ignores the meaning of this english word).
If an 'interpreter' skilled in english language is involved in a 'semiotic' process with this word, that "cat" became also a 'sign' i.e. it became for the 'interpreter' a representation for a real cat.
A string is made of concatenated symbols whose arrangement is onedimensional. Each symbol can have only one previous and one next neighborhood (bidirectional list).
A string is not requested to respect any syntactic rule: it's simply directly made of symbols.
String
Painting
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMPERRAD
N⋅m/rad
Newton Meter per Radian is the SI unit for Torsion Constant
 QUDT
Newton metre per radian
NewtonMetrePerRadian
101.07
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MilliM3
mm3
mm³
A metric measure of volume or capacity equal to a cube 1 millimeter on each edge
 QUDT
Cubic Millimetre
CubicMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/EVSEC
eV.s
eV⋅s
"Electron Volt Second" is a unit for 'Angular Momentum' expressed as eV s.
 QUDT
Electron Volt Second
ElectronVoltSecond
PowerUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERK
m/K
m/k
Metre per Kelvin
MetrePerKelvin
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERSECM2
/(s1.m2)
s1.m2
/s⋅m²
`Per Second Square Meter` is a measure of flux with dimensions /secm².
 QUDT
Reciprocal Second Square Metre
ReciprocalSecondSquareMetre
AmountPerAreaTimeUnit
T1 L0 M1 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
64
A standalone atom that has no net charge.
NeutralAtom
1.0
1000000000000000.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Period
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2642727
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030601
314
duration of one cycle of a periodic event
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04493
Period
PeriodDuration
hasStage
MassLengthPerCubicTimeUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERM3
N.m3
N/m³
Newtons per cubic metre
NewtonPerCubicMetre
(according to DIN 8200) Shot peening to generate residual compressive stresses in layers of the blasting material close to the surface in order to improve certain component properties, e.g. fatigue strength, corrosion resistance, wear resistance (from: DIN 8200:1982)
ShotPeening
Verfestigungsstrahlen
Peening
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SolidStateDiffusionLength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106097176
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=5210260
1233
In condensed matter physics, the square root of the product of diffusion coefficient and lifetime.
DiffusionLength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q93946998
524
JouleThomsonCoefficient
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2NanoMSR
W.m2.nm1.sr1
W/m²⋅nm⋅sr
Watts per square metre per nanometre per steradian
WattPerSquareMetrePerNanoMetrePerSteradian
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectromagneticPermeability
626.2
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04503
Measure for how the magnetization of material is affected by the application of an external magnetic field .
ElectromagneticPermeability
Permeability
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERMIN
mol.min1
mol/min
SI base unit mole divided by the unit for time minute
 QUDT
Mole Per Minute
MolePerMinute
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM
W.m1
W/m
Watts per metre
WattPerMetre
Method of joining metallic materials with the aid of a molten filler metal (solder), optionally with the use of flow agents
Löten
Soldering
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERHZDEG
m2.Hz1.deg1
m²/(Hz⋅°)
Square metres per Hertz per degree
SquareMetrePerHertzPerDegree
5
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PropagationCoefficient.html
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1434913
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031018
326.3
Measure of the change of amplitude and phase angle of a plane wave propagating in a given direction.
PropagationCoefficient
0.0
A WorkPiece is physical artifact, that has a proper shape and occupyes a proper volume intended for subsequent transformation. It is a condensed state, so it is a compact body that is processed or has to be processed.
A solid is defined as a portion of matter that is in a condensed state characterised by resistance to deformation and volume changes.
In manufacturing, a workpiece is a single, delimited part of largely solid material that is processed in some form (e.g. stone ).
In physics, a rigid body (also known as a rigid object[2]) is a solid body in which deformation is zero or so small it can be neglected. The distance between any two given points on a rigid body remains constant in time regardless of external forces or moments exerted on it. A rigid body is usually considered as a continuous distribution of mass.
It has a shape, so we conclude that it is solid
Object that is processed with a machine
Seems to have to be processed through mechanical deformation. So it takes part of a manufacturing process. It is a Manufactured Product and it can be a Commercial Product
The raw material or partially finished piece that is shaped by performing various operations.
They are not powders or threads
a physical artifact, real or virtual, intended for subsequent transformation within some manufacturing operation
fili e polveri non sono compresi
it seems to be an intermediate product, that has to reach the final shape.
it seems to be solid, so it has a proper shape
powder is not workpiece because it has the shape of the recipient containing them
Werkstück
WorkPiece
The relation between two entities that stands for the same individuals.
Equality is here defined following a mereological approach.
equalsTo
LengthUnit
Assemblying
From Old French asembler, based on Latin ad ‘to’ + simul ‘together’.
InverseSquareMassUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERFARAD
m.F1
m/f
Metre per Farad
MetrePerFarad
1.0
A quantity whose magnitude is additive for subsystems.
Mass
Volume
Entropy
Note that not all physical quantities can be categorised as being either intensive or extensive. For example the square root of the mass.
Extensive
A 'Process', that has participant an 'Interpreter', that is aimed to produce a 'Sign' representing another participant, the 'Object'.
Me looking a cat and saying loud: "Cat!" > the semiosis process
me > interpreter
cat > object (in Peirce semiotics)
the cat perceived by my mind > interpretant
"Cat!" > sign, the produced sign
Semiosis
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q170731
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140115
The analytical composition of a saturated solution, expressed in terms of the proportion of a designated solute in a designated solvent, is the solubility of that solute.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05740
The solubility may be expressed as a concentration, molality, mole fraction, mole ratio, etc.
Solubility
Dedomena
From Greek, nominative plural form of δεδομένο (dedoméno) (data, information)
MassPerLengthUnit
Atom subclass for rhodium.
RhodiumAtom
A procedure that has at least two procedures (tasks) as proper parts.
Workflow
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERCentiM3
cm3.cm3
cm3/cm3
cm³/cm³
volume ratio consisting of the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Cubic Centimetre
CubicCentiMetrePerCubicCentiMetre
A proper part relation with range restricted to collections.
hasScatteredPart
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JM2
J.m2
J⋅m²
Joule Square Metre
JouleSquareMetre
1.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2
W.m2
W/m2
W/m²
"Watt per Square Meter} is a unit of irradiance defined as the power received per area. This is a unit in the category of Energy flux. It is also known as watts per square meter, watt per square metre, watts per square metre, watt/square meter, watt/square metre. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Watt Per Square Meter (W/m²) has a dimension of MT^{3" where M is mass, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsenergy_fluxwatt_per_square_meter.cfm
Watt per Square Metre
WattPerSquareMetre
1.0
1.0
Strengthening by rolling is the strengthening of component surfaces by mechanically generating compressive stresses in the component surface and consolidating the material.
DIN 650997:198911
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MK
m.K
m⋅K
`Meter Kelvin` is a unit for 'Length Temperature' expressed as m K.
 QUDT
Metre Kelvin
MetreKelvin
AmountPerMassTimeUnit
247.07031
1.0
Atom subclass for plutonium.
PlutoniumAtom
A causal chain is an ordered causal sequence of entities that does not host any bifurcation within itself (a chain). A chain can only be partitioned in time.
The class of entities that possess a temporal structure but no spatial structure.
An electron with at least one causal interaction with another particle.
hasTemporalPart min 2 (Elementary or Quantum)
CausalChain
Elementary
CausalPath
https://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SUSCEPTIBILITY_MAG.html
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q691463
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211237
628
Scalar or tensor quantity the product of which by the magnetic constant μ0 and by the magnetic field strength H is equal to the magnetic polarization J.
MagneticSusceptibility
Property
From Latin proprietas (“a peculiarity, one's peculiar nature or quality, right or fact of possession, property”), from proprius (“special, particular, one's own”).
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q79464628
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311253
652.2
Real part of the admittance.
ConductanceForAlternatingCurrent
T+1 L+1 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
ZirconiumSymbol
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HeatCapacityRatio
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q503869
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130451
517.1
Ratio of specific heat capacity at constant pressure cp to specific heat capacity at constant volume cV, thus γ = cp/cV.
RatioOfSpecificHeatCapacities
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JSEC
J.s
J⋅s
The joulesecond is a unit equal to a joule multiplied by a second, used to measure action or angular momentum. The joulesecond is the unit used for Planck's constant.
 QUDT
Joule Second
JouleSecond
Electronic device capable of processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer
Computer
ComputerSystem
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERK
J.K1
J/K
Joule Per Kelvin (J/K) is a unit in the category of Entropy. It is also known as joules per kelvin, joule/kelvin. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Joule Per Kelvin (J/K) has a dimension of ML²T⁻²Q⁻¹ where M is mass, L is length, T is time, and Q is temperature. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Joule per Kelvin
JoulePerKelvin
Superclass for all units prefixed with "tera" (1e12).
TeraPrefixedUnit
Laplacian
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/TotalCurrent
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q77679732
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211145
619.2
Sum of electric current and displacement current
TotalCurrent
1.602177e19
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NeutronYieldPerFission
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99157909
1074.1
Average number of fission neutrons, both prompt and delayed, emitted per fission event.
NeutronYieldPerFission
hardening of a workpiece caused by the precipitation of one or more compounds from a supersaturated solid solution
ISO 4885:201802
An elementary particle of halfinteger spin (spin 1⁄2) that does not undergo strong interactions.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lepton
Lepton
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERVSEC
m2.V1.s1
m²/(V⋅s)
Square Metre per Volt Second
SquareMetrePerVoltSecond
AccelerationUnit
T1 L+3 M0 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q13824
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031013
https://dbpedia.org/page/Phase_velocity
323.1
For a sinusoidal wave at a given point, velocity in the direction of propagation of the wavefront corresponding to a specified phase.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_velocity
PhaseSpeed
PhaseVelocity
A colloid formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
Foam
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroL
uL
μL
0.000001fold of the unit litre
 QUDT
MicroLitre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassDefect
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q26897126
1021.2
Sum of the product of the proton number and the hydrogen atomic mass, and the neutron rest mass, minus the rest mass of the atom.
MassDefect
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two volumes.
Unit for volume fraction.
VolumeFractionUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERKiloGMSEC
C.kg1.s1
C/(kg.s)
C/kg⋅s
The SI unit of exposure rate
 QUDT
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Basic_Physics_of_Nuclear_Medicine/Units_of_Radiation_Measurement
Coulomb Per Kilogram Second
CoulombPerKilogramSecond
RedAntiQuark
Atom subclass for tennessine.
TennessineAtom
Number to multiply a SI coherent unit with when converting to a given nonSI coherent unit.
Conversion formula:
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
hasSIConversionMultiplier
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLDEG_C
mol.Cel
mol⋅°C
`Mole Degree Celsius` is a C.G.S System unit for 'Temperature Amount Of Substance' expressed as moldegC.
 QUDT
Mole Degree Celsius
MoleDegreeCelsius
Deka
Deca
0.0
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO symbol data entity.
hasSymbolValue
Atom subclass for mendelevium.
MendeleviumAtom
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. Examples of physical properties include density, index of refraction, magnetization and chemical composition. A simple description is that a phase is a region of material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and (often) mechanically separable. In a system consisting of ice and water in a glass jar, the ice cubes are one phase, the water is a second phase, and the humid air is a third phase over the ice and water. The glass of the jar is another separate phase.
The term phase is sometimes used as a synonym for state of matter, but there can be several immiscible phases of the same state of matter. Also, the term phase is sometimes used to refer to a set of equilibrium states demarcated in terms of state variables such as pressure and temperature by a phase boundary on a phase diagram. Because phase boundaries relate to changes in the organization of matter, such as a change from liquid to solid or a more subtle change from one crystal structure to another, this latter usage is similar to the use of "phase" as a synonym for state of matter. However, the state of matter and phase diagram usages are not commensurate with the formal definition given above and the intended meaning must be determined in part from the context in which the term is used.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_(matter)
Atom subclass for sulfur.
SulfurAtom
Cn
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SurfaceTension
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q170749
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130342
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06192
426
SurfaceTension
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERSR
W.sr1
W/sr
`Watt Per Steradian (W/sr)` is the unit in the category of Radiant intensity. It is also known as watts per steradian. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Watt Per Steradian (W/sr) has a dimension of M· L⁻²· T⁻³ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Watt per Steradian
WattPerSteradian
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1951266
Relation between observed magnetic moment of a particle and the related unit of magnetic moment.
GFactor
Positron
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KSEC
K.s
K⋅s
Kelvin second
KelvinSecond
A causal object which is tessellated with only spatial direct parts.
e.g. the existent in my glass is declared at t = t_start as made of two direct parts: the ice and the water. It will continue to exists as state as long as the ice is completely melt at t = t_end. The new state will be completely made of water. Between t_start and t_end there is an exchange of molecules between the ice and the water, but this does not affect the existence of the two states.
If we partition the existent in my glass as ice surrounded by several molecules (we do not use the object water as direct part) then the appearance of a molecule coming from the ice will cause a state to end and another state to begin.
The definition of an arrangement implies that its spatial direct parts are not gained or lost during its temporal extension (they exist from the left to the right side of the time interval), so that the cardinality of spatial direct parts in an arrangement is constant.
This does not mean that there cannot be a change in the internal structure of the arrangement direct parts. It means only that this change must not affect the existence of the direct part itself.
The use of spatial direct parthood in state definition means that an arrangement cannot overlap in space another arrangement that is direct part of the same whole.
MereologicalState
Arrangement
Atom subclass for nitrogen.
NitrogenAtom
12
The small, dense region at the centre of an atom consisting of protons and neutrons.
Nucleus
The class of individuals that stand for an elementary mark of a specific symbolic code (alphabet).
The class of letter "A" is the symbol as idea and the letter A that you see on the screen is the mark that can be represented by an individual belonging to "A".
Subclasses of 'Symbol' are alphabets, in formal languages terminology. A 'Symbol' is atomic for that alphabet, i.e. it has no parts that are symbols for the same alphabet.
e.g. a math symbol is not made of other math symbols
A Symbol may be a String in another language.
e.g. "Bq" is the symbol for Becquerel units when dealing with metrology, or a string of "B" and "q" symbols when dealing with characters.
Symbols of a formal language need not be symbols of anything. For instance there are logical constants which do not refer to any idea, but rather serve as a form of punctuation in the language (e.g. parentheses).
Symbols of a formal language must be capable of being specified without any reference to any interpretation of them.
(Wikipedia)
The class is the idea of the symbol, while the individual of that class stands for a specific mark (or token) of that idea.
AlphabeticEntity
Symbol
A bosonic elementary particle that mediates interactions among elementary fermions, and thus acts as a force carrier.
All known gauge bosons have a spin of 1 and are hence also vector bosons.
Gauge bosons can carry any of the four fundamental interactions of nature.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauge_boson
GaugeBoson
notOverlaps
PerLengthTimeUnit
A whole possessing some proper parts of its same type.
NonMaximal
Redundant
An object A which is classified as waterfluid possesses a proper part B which is water itself if the lenght scale of the B is larger than the water intermolecular distance keeping it in the continuum range. In this sense, A is redundant.
If A is a waterfluid so small that its every proper part is no more a continuum object (i.e. no more a fluid), then A is fundamental.
Free forming is pressure forming with tools that do not or only partially contain the shape of the workpiece and move against each other (from: DIN 8583 Part 3/05.70).
DIN 650993:198911
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroBQ
uBq
μBq
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit becquerel
 QUDT
MicroBecquerel
99
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/OHMM
Ohm.m
Ω⋅m
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Ohm Metre
OhmMetre
1.0
OsmiumSymbol
69.723
TemperaturePerPressureUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERMilliM2
N.mm2
N/mm²
SI derived unit newton divided by the 0.000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
Newton Per Square Millimetre
NewtonPerSquareMilliMetre
Atom subclass for zinc.
ZincAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERKiloM
/km
km1
/km
Per Kilometer Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /km.
 QUDT
Reciprocal Kilometre
ReciprocalKiloMetre
67
6
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
a unit for power per volume quantities
A unit for power per volume quantities.
WattPerLitre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERRAD
N/rad
A onenewton force applied for one angle/torsional torque
 QUDT
Newton per radian
NewtonPerRadian
A sign that stands for an object by resembling or imitating it, in shape, function or by sharing a similar logical structure.
A picture that reproduces the aspect of a person.
An equation that reproduces the logical connection of the properties of a physical entity.
If object and sign belongs to the same class, then the sign is fuctional, diagrammatic and resemblance.
For example, when a Boeing 747 is used as a sign for another Boeing 747.
In Peirce semiotics three subtypes of icon are possible:
(a) the image, which depends on a simple quality (e.g. picture)
(b) the diagram, whose internal relations, mainly dyadic or so taken, represent by analogy the relations in something (e.g. math formula, geometric flowchart)
(c) the metaphor, which represents the representative character of a sign by representing a parallelism in something else
[Wikipedia]
Model
Simulacrum
Icon
Forming of vessel parts from a flat mould into a threedimensional shape by means of a press and tools, whereby material is neither removed nor added
Tiefziehen
DeepDrawing
1.0
0.0
Femto
A coded that makes use of an atomic symbol with respect to the code used to refer to the interaction.
Hardness is a subclass of properties.
Vickers hardness is a subclass of hardness that involves the procedures and instruments defined by the standard hardness test.
The name "red" which is atomic in the code made of the list of colors.
A property is atomic in the sense that is aimed to deliver one and one only aspect of the object according to one code, such as the color with one sign (e.g., black) or a quantitiative property (e.g., 1.4 kg).
Property
SexticLengthUnit
278.156
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMSEC
m1.s1
/(m⋅s)
Reciprocal metre per second
ReciprocalMetrePerSecond
112.414
0.0
SIAccepted
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERH
H1
/H
Reciprocal Henry
ReciprocalHenry
The primitive relation that express the concept of an entity being part of another one.
All other mereology relations can be defined in FOL using hasPart as primitive.
hasPart
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HalfLife
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98118544
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950112
1031
Mean duration required for the decay of one half of the atoms or nuclei.
HalfLife
URL to corresponding Wikipedia entry.
https://www.wikipedia.org/
wikipediaReference
COU
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/C
C
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Coulomb
SI unit for electric charge.
The SI unit of electric charge. One coulomb is the amount of charge accumulated in one second by a current of one ampere. Electricity is actually a flow of charged particles, such as electrons, protons, or ions. The charge on one of these particles is a wholenumber multiple of the charge e on a single electron, and one coulomb represents a charge of approximately 6.241 506 x 1018 e. The coulomb is named for a French physicist, CharlesAugustin de Coulomb (17361806), who was the first to measure accurately the forces exerted between electric charges.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb?oldid=491815163
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01365
Coulomb
AntiLepton
A law that provides a connection between a property of the object and other properties, capturing a fundamental physical phenomena.
PhysicalLaw
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMPERMRAD
N⋅m/(m⋅rad)
Newton Metre per Metre per Radians
NewtonMetrePerMetrePerRadian
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/unit/E_h.html
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q476572
https://dbpedia.org/page/Hartree
108
Energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom in its ground state
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hartree
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02748
HartreeEnergy
Atom subclass for niobium.
NiobiumAtom
NEW
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/N
N
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Newton
SI unit for force.
The "Newton" is the SI unit of force. A force of one newton will accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. The newton is named for Isaac Newton (16421727), the British mathematician, physicist, and natural philosopher. He was the first person to understand clearly the relationship between force (F), mass (m), and acceleration (a) expressed by the formula F = m·a.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton?oldid=488427661
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04135
Newton
0.0001
0.0
A characteriser that declares a property for an object through the specific interaction required by the property definition.
Observer
1 + 1 = 2
ArithmeticEquation
OrganicCompound
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q898254
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140110
ratio of the number of dissociated molecules of a specified type to the total number of dissolved molecules of this type.
DissociationConstant
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LevelWidth
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98082340
1026
In nuclear physics, quotient of the reduced Planck constant and the mean duration of life of an unstable particle or an excited state.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03507
LevelWidth
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KiloM3PERSEC2
km3.s2
km3/s2
km³/s²
`Cubic Kilometer per Square Second` is a unit for `Standard Gravitational Parameter` expressed as km³/s².
 QUDT
Cubic Kilometre per Square Second
CubicKiloMetrePerSquareSecond
AreaPerTimeUnit
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q914921
49.5
Force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface.
RollingDrag
RollingFrictionForce
RollingResistance
0.0
FormingFromPlastic
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERSRJ
m2.sr1.J1
m²/(sr⋅J)
Square Metre per Steradian Joule
SquareMetrePerSteradianJoule
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LUXHR
lx.h
lx⋅hr
The SI unit for measuring the illumination (illuminance) of a surface. One lux is defined as an illumination of one lumen per square meter or 0.0001 phot. In considering the various light units, it's useful to think about light originating at a point and shining upon a surface. The intensity of the light source is measured in candelas; the total light flux in transit is measured in lumens (1 lumen = 1 candelau00b7steradian); and the amount of light received per unit of surface area is measured in lux (1 lux = 1 lumen/square meter). One lux is equal to approximately 0.09290 foot candle.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lux?oldid=494700274
Lux Hour
LuxHour
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2PERSEC
cm2.s1
cm²/s
Square centimetres per second
SquareCentiMetrePerSecond
A functional icon that imitates the behaviour of the object through mathematical evaluations of some mathematical construct.
The equation that describes the velocity of a uniform accelerated body v = v0 + a*t is a functional icon. In general every analitical solution of a mathematical model can be considered an icon. A functional icon expresses its similarity with the object when is part of a process the makes it imitate the behavior of the object. In the case of v = v0 + a*t, plotting the velocity over time or listing their values at certain instants is when the icon expresses it functionality.
PhysicsMathematicalComputation
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LPERL
L.L1
L/L
L/L
volume ratio consisting of the unit litre divided by the unit litre
 QUDT
Litre Per Litre
LitrePerLitre
Method of joining metallic materials with the aid of a molten filler metal (solder), optionally with the use of flow agents
DIN 55405:201412
The relation between two entities that overlaps and neither of both is part of the other.
properOverlaps
a unit of specific energy commonly used to measure the density of energy in batteries and capacitors
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watthour_per_kilogram
WattHourPerKilogram
Atom subclass for manganese.
ManganeseAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERDEG_C
d.Cel1
g/°C
`Gram Degree Celsius` is a C.G.S System unit for 'Mass Temperature' expressed as g · degC.
 QUDT
Gram Degree Celsius
GramDegreeCelsius
UpAntiQuarkType
WEB
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WB
Wb
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Weber
SI unit for magnetic flux.
The SI unit of magnetic flux. "Flux" is the rate (per unit of time) at which something crosses a surface perpendicular to the flow. The weber is a large unit, equal to 10⁸ maxwells, and practical fluxes are usually fractions of one weber. The weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A). The weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as the Teslasquare meter (T·m²), voltseconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weber_(unit)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06666
Weber
0.0
252.083
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/TotalIonization
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98690787
1059
Quotient of the total mean charge of all positive ions produced by an ionizing charged particle along its entire path and along the paths of any secondary charged particles, and the elementary charge.
TotalIonization
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEG_CPERSEC
Cel.s1
Cel/s
°C/s
`Degree Celsius per Second` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time' expressed as degC / s.
 QUDT
Degree Celsius per Second
DegreeCelsiusPerSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TONNEPERDAY
t.d1
t/day
metric unit ton divided by the unit for time day
 QUDT
Tonne Per Day
TonnePerDay
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliM3
mm3
/mm³
reciprocal value of the 0.000000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Reciprocal Cubic Millimetre
ReciprocalCubicMilliMetre
SerialStep
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ReactorTimeConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99518950
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950704
1079
Duration required for the neutron fluence rate in a reactor to change by the factor e when the fluence rate is rising or falling exponentially.
ReactorTimeConstant
Process for joining two (base) materials by means of an adhesive polymer material
Kleben
Gluing
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q88871689
Chosen value of amount concentration, usually equal to 1 mol dm−3.
912.2
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05909
StandardConcentration
StandardMolarConcentration
StandardAmountConcentration
A language used to describe what a computer system should do.
ACSL, VDM, LOTUS, MML, ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specification_language
SpecificationLanguage
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectronAffinity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105846486
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130622
1225
energy difference between an electron at rest at infinity and an electron at the lowest level of the conduction band in an insulator or semiconductor
ElectronAffinity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1048490
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311245
651.2
Real part of the impedance.
ResistanceToAlternativeCurrent
42
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/LogarithmicUnit
A logarithmic unit is a unit that can be used to express a quantity (physical or mathematical) on a logarithmic scale, that is, as being proportional to the value of a logarithm function applied to the ratio of the quantity and a reference quantity of the same type.
Decibel
Note that logarithmic units like decibel or neper are not univocally defines, since their definition depends on whether they are used to measure a "power" or a "rootpower" quantity.
It is advisory to create a uniquely defined subclass these units for concrete usage.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithmic_scale#Logarithmic_units
LogarithmicUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/C3MPERJ2
C3.m.J2
C3.m/J2
C³⋅m/J²
"Cubic Coulomb Meter per Square Joule" is a unit for 'Cubic Electric Dipole Moment Per Square Energy' expressed as C³ m³ J⁻².
 QUDT
Cubic Coulomb Metre per Square Joule
CubicCoulombMetrePerSquareJoule
The process of transforming precursor objects (e.g. raw materials) into a product by the use of manual labor, machinery or chemical/biological processes.
Deals with entities that have a defined shape.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertigungsverfahren
DIN 8580:2020
ISO 155311:2004
manufacturing: function or act of converting or transforming material from raw material or semifinished state to a state of further completion
ISO 184351:2009
manufacturing process: set of processes in manufacturing involving a flow and/or transformation of material, information, energy, control, or any other element in a manufacturing area
Manufacturing
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERT
J.T1
J/T
The magnetic moment of a magnet is a quantity that determines the force that the magnet can exert on electric currents and the torque that a magnetic field will exert on it. A loop of electric current, a bar magnet, an electron, a molecule, and a planet all have magnetic moments. The unit for magnetic moment is not a base unit in the International System of Units (SI) and it can be represented in more than one way. For example, in the current loop definition, the area is measured in square meters and I is measured in amperes, so the magnetic moment is measured in amperesquare meters (A m2). In the equation for torque on a moment, the torque is measured in joules and the magnetic field in tesla, so the moment is measured in Joules per Tesla (J u00b7T1). These two representations are equivalent: 1 A u00b7m2 = 1 J u00b7T1.
 QUDT
Joule per Tesla
JoulePerTesla
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/VoltagePhasor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q78514605
650
Complex representation of an oscillating voltage.
VoltagePhasor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98592828
1051
Quotient of linear attenuation coefficient µ and the amount c of the medium.
MolarAttenuationCoefficient
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERCentiM3
cm3
/cm³
reciprocal of the 0.000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Reciprocal Cubic Centimetre
ReciprocalCubicCentiMetre
JOU
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/J
J
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Joule
SI unit for energy.
The SI unit of work or energy, defined to be the work done by a force of one newton acting to move an object through a distance of one meter in the direction in which the force is applied. Equivalently, since kinetic energy is one half the mass times the square of the velocity, one joule is the kinetic energy of a mass of two kilograms moving at a velocity of 1 m/s.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule?oldid=494340406
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.J03363
Joule
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERK
W.K1
w/K
Watt Per Kelvin (W/K) is a unit in the category of Thermal conductivity.
 QUDT
Watt per Kelvin
WattPerKelvin
ConcreteOrPlasterPouring
FunctionallyDefinedMaterial
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Density
Mass per volume.
42
910
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01590
Quantity representing the spatial distribution of mass in a continuous material.
MassConcentration
MassDensity
Density
Examples of composite particles with halfinteger spin:
spin 1/2: He3 in ground state, proton, neutron
spin 3/2: He5 in ground state, Delta baryons (excitations of the proton and neutron)
CompositeFermion
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQPERL
Bq.L1
Bq/L
One radioactive disintegration per second from a one part in 10**3 of the SI unit of volume (cubic metre).
 QUDT
Becquerels per litre
BecquerelPerLitre
Device
From Old French "deviser", meaning: arrange, plan, contrive. Literally "dispose in portions," from Vulgar Latin "divisare", frequentative of Latin dividere, meaning "to divide".
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Voltage
611.3
The difference in electric potential between two points.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06635
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00424
Correspond to the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between two points in a static electric field.
ElectricPotentialDifference
ElectricTension
Voltage
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERSEC
/s
s1
/s
A reciprical unit of time for `reciprocal second` or `inverse second`. The `Per Second` is a unit of rate.
 QUDT
Reciprocal Second
ReciprocalSecond
0.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VPERSEC
V.s1
V/s
'Volt per Second' is a unit of magnetic flux equaling one weber. This is the flux passing through a conducting loop and reduced to zero at a uniform rate in one second inducing an electric potential of one volt in the loop.
 QUDT
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Webers
Volt per second
VoltPerSecond
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PlanckFunction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76364998
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130425
523
Ngative quotient of Gibbs energy and temperature.
PlanckFunction
Casting
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ComplexPower
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q65239736
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311139
659
Voltage phasor multiplied by complex conjugate of the current phasor.
ComplexApparentPower
ComplexPower
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpinQuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3879445
1013.5
Characteristic quantum number s of a particle, related to its spin.
SpinQuantumNumber
RedTopAntiQuark
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassConcentrationOfWater
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76378758
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130459
527
Quotient of the mass of water in a threedimensional domain, irrespective of the form of aggregation, by the volume of the domain.
The mass concentration of water at saturation is denoted wsat.
MassConcentrationOfWater
D13
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SV
Sv
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Sievert
SI unit for equivalent doseof ionizing radiation. Sievert is derived from absorbed dose, but takes into account the biological effectiveness of the radiation, which is dependent on the radiation type and energy.
Although the sievert has the same dimensions as the gray (i.e. joules per kilogram), it measures a different quantity. To avoid any risk of confusion between the absorbed dose and the equivalent dose, the corresponding special units, namely the gray instead of the joule per kilogram for absorbed dose and the sievert instead of the joule per kilogram for the dose equivalent, should be used.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sievert?oldid=495474333
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equivalent_dose
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05658
Sievert
0.0
A semiotic relation that connects a recognised semiotic object to an icon in a cognition process.
hasIcon
1.0
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800003.
SpaceAndTimeQuantity
96
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HPERM
H.m1
H/m
The henry per meter (symbolized H/m) is the unit of magnetic permeability in the International System of Units ( SI ). Reduced to base units in SI, 1 H/m is the equivalent of one kilogram meter per square second per square ampere.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry?oldid=491435978
Henry per Metre
HenryPerMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERWB
Wb1
/Wb
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Reciprocal Weber
ReciprocalWeber
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MegaAPERM2
MA.m2
mol/m²
1 000 000fold of the SI base unit ampere divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
Megaampere Per Square Metre
MegaAmperePerSquareMetre
A construction language used to make queries in databases and information systems.
SQL, SPARQL
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_language
QueryLanguage
Yb
Am
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LPERDAY
L.d1
L/d
L/day
unit litre divided by the unit day
 QUDT
Litre Per Day
LitrePerDay
The relation between an entity and one of its parts, when both entities are distinct.
hasProperPart
lx
A suspension of liquid droplets dispersed in a gas through an atomization process.
Spray
262.11
T2 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
1.0
Technology is the application of knowledge for achieving practical goals in a reproducible way.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology
Machining with a circular cutting movement, usually associated with a multitoothed tool, and with a feed movement perpendicular or oblique to the axis of rotation of the tool, to produce any workpiece surface.
Fräsen
Milling
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMPERM2
N.m.m2
N⋅m/m²
product of the SI derived unit newton and the SI base unit metre divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
Newton Metre Per Square Metre
NewtonMetrePerSquareMetre
GoldSymbol
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106041085
1232.1
time constant for scattering, trapping or annihilation of charge carriers, phonons or other quasiparticles
RelaxationTime
M
A standalone atom has direct part one 'nucleus' and one 'electron_cloud'.
An O 'atom' within an O₂ 'molecule' is an 'ebonded_atom'.
In this material branch, H atom is a particular case, with respect to higher atomic number atoms, since as soon as it shares its electron it has no nucleus entangled electron cloud.
We cannot say that H₂ molecule has direct part two H atoms, but has direct part two H nucleus.
An 'atom' is a 'nucleus' surrounded by an 'electron_cloud', i.e. a quantum system made of one or more bounded electrons.
ChemicalElement
Atom
An integer number.
Integer
1.0
A causal multipath system is a system made of causal paths that are not interacting between each others, or possibly merge and fork.
A physically unbounded system is a combination of decays and/or annihilations, without any spacelike interaction between elementary particles.
PhysicallyNonInteracting
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/APERM2K2
A.m2.K2
A/(m2.K2)
A/m²⋅k²
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Ampere per Square Metre Square Kelvin
AmperePerSquareMetreSquareKelvin
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Admittance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q214518
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311251
https://dbpedia.org/page/Admittance
652.1
Inverse of the impendance.
ComplexAdmittance
Admittance
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PhaseCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q32745742
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031020
326.2
Change of phase angle with the length along the path travelled by a plane wave.
The imaginary part of the propagation coefficient.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propagation_constant#Phase_constant
PhaseChangeCoefficient
PhaseCoefficient
hasSubCollection
SquareMassPerSquareTimeUnit
PerVolumeUnit
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Impedance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q179043
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311243
651.1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_impedance
Measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
Impedance
ElectricImpedance
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Action
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q846785
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130351
432
Physical quantity of dimension energy × time.
Action
1e06
Atom subclass for oganesson.
OganessonAtom
Document
From Latin documentum, from the verb doceō (“teach”) + mentum.
A guess is a theory, estimated and subjective, since its premises are subjective.
Guess
A colloid composed of fine solid particles or liquid droplets in air or another gas.
Aerosol
C
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HeatFlowRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q12160631
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130436
57
Amount of heat through a surface during a time interval divided by the duration of this interval.
HeatFlowRate
MassSquareTimeUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/APERMilliM2
A.mm2
A/mm2
A/mm²
SI base unit ampere divided by the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 2
 QUDT
Ampere Per Square Millimetre
AmperePerSquareMilliMetre
A semiotic relation that connects a declared semiotic object to a conventional sign in a declaration process.
hasConvention
Examples of composite particles with integer spin:
spin 0: H1 and He4 in ground state, pion
spin 1: H1 and He4 in first excited state, meson
spin 2: O15 in ground state.
CompositeBoson
A collective term for the processes in which, during joining, the parts to be joined and any auxiliary parts are essentially only elastically deformed and unintentional loosening is prevented by frictional connection.
Anpressen
Pressing
1.0
0.0
AntiTau
A constituent of a system.
Component
Heat to a temperature appropriate for the particular material, maintain at that temperature and then cool at an appropriate rate to reduce hardness, improve machinability or achieve desired properties.
wärmebehandeln
HeatTreatment
0.0
The unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass of an Item sums to zero. Equivalently, it is the point where if a force is applied to the Item, causes the Item to move in direction of force without rotation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_of_mass
In nonrelativistic physics, the centre of mass doesn’t depend on the chosen reference frame.
CentreOfMass
1e09
10000.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DimensionlessRatio
The class of quantities that are the ratio of two quantities with the same physical dimensionality.
refractive index,
volume fraction,
fine structure constant
Quantities defined as ratios `Q=A/B` having equal dimensions in numerator and denominator are dimensionless quantities but still have a physical dimension defined as dim(A)/dim(B).
Johansson, Ingvar (2010). "Metrological thinking needs the notions of parametric quantities, units and dimensions". Metrologia. 47 (3): 219–230. doi:10.1088/00261394/47/3/012. ISSN 00261394.
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/00261394/47/3/012
RatioQuantity
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140121
For more details, see ISO 800009:2009, Annex C
Number quantifying the acidic or the alkaline character of a solution, equal to the negative of the decimal logarithm of ion activity aH+ of the hydrogen cation H+
pH = −10 log(a_H+).
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04524
At about 25 °C aqueous solutions with:
pH < 7 are acidic;
pH = 7 are neutral;
pH > 7 are alkaline.
At temperatures far from 25 °C the pH of a neutral solution differs significantly from 7.
Written as pH
PH
A coded conventional that is determined by each interpeter following a well defined determination procedure through a specific perception channel.
The word objective does not mean that each observation will provide the same results. It means that the observation followed a well defined procedure.
This class refers to what is commonly known as physical property, i.e. a measurable property of physical system, whether is quantifiable or not.
Objective
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroS
uS
μS
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit siemens
 QUDT
MicroSiemens
FormingFromGas
AstatineSymbol
Manufacturing
From Latin manu factum ("made by hand").
0.0
1015.1
Angular frequency of the electron angular momentum vector precession about the axis of an external magnetic field.
LarmonAngularFrequency
The union of the object or process classes.
The interest is on the 4D object as it extends in time (process) or as it persists in time (object):
 object (focus on spatial configuration)
 process (focus on temporal evolution)
The concepts of endurant and perdurant implicitly rely on the concept of instantaneous 3D snapshot of the world object, that in the EMMO is not allowed since everything extends in 4D and there are no abstract objects. Moreover, time is a measured property in the EMMO and not an objective characteristic of an object, and cannot be used as temporal index to identify endurant position in time.
For this reason an individual in the EMMO can always be classified both endurant and perdurant, due to its nature of 4D entity (e.g. an individual may belong both to the class of runners and the class of running process), and the distinction is purely semantic. In fact, the object/process distinction is simply a matter of convenience in a 4D approach since a temporal extension is always the case, and stationarity depends upon observer time scale. For this reason, the same individual (4D object) may play the role of a process or of an object class depending on the object to which it relates.
Nevertheless, it is useful to introduce categorizations that characterize persistency through continuant and occurrent concepts, even if not ontologically but only cognitively defined. This is also due to the fact that our language distinguish between nouns and verbs to address things, forcing the separation between things that happens and things that persist.
This perspective provides classes conceptually similar to the concepts of endurant and perdurant (a.k.a. continuant and occurrent). We claim that this distinction is motivated by our cognitive bias, and we do not commit to the fact that both these kinds of entity “do really exist”. For this reason, a whole instance can be both process and object, according to different cognitive approaches (see Wonderweb D17).
The distinction between endurant and perdurant as usually introduced in literature (see BFO SPAN/SNAP approach) is then no more ontological, but can still be expressed through the introduction of ad hoc primitive definitions that follow the interpreter endurantist or perdurantist attitude.
Persistence
Atom subclass for hafnium.
HafniumAtom
VolumePerSquareTimeUnit
T0 L2 M+1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105658620
1213
ThermodynamicGrueneisenParameter
BlueUpQuark
x isNotCauseOf y iff not(x isCauseOf y)
isNotCauseOf
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AbsoluteActivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q56638155
918
The exponential of the ratio of the chemical potential to R*T where R is the gas constant and T the thermodynamic temperature.
https://goldbook.iupac.org/terms/view/A00019
AbsoluteActivity
KAT
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KAT
kat
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Katal
SI unit for catalytic activity.
A unit of catalytic activity used especially in the chemistry of enzymes. A catalyst is a substance that starts or speeds a chemical reaction. Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within the bodies of living plants and animals. A catalyst has an activity of one katal if it enables a reaction to proceed at the rate of one mole per second.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Katal?oldid=486431865
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.K03372
Katal
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ApparentPower
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1930258
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311141
657
RMS value voltage multiplied by rms value of electric current.
ApparentPower
The base units in the SI system.
https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/sibrochure/SIBrochure9EN.pdf
SIBaseUnit
A12
https://qudt.org/vocab/unit/AU
AU
http://dbpedia.org/page/Astronomical_unit
One astronomical unit is defined as exactly 149597870700 m, which is roughly the distance from earth to sun.
AU
au
An astronomical unit (abbreviated as AU, au, a.u., or ua) is a unit of length equal to 149,597,870,700 metres (92,955,807.273 mi) or approximately the mean Earth Sun distance. The symbol ua is recommended by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and the international standard ISO 80000, while au is recommended by the International Astronomical Union, and is more common in Anglosphere countries. In general, the International System of Units only uses capital letters for the symbols of units which are named after individual scientists, while au or a.u. can also mean atomic unit or even arbitrary unit. However, the use of AU to refer to the astronomical unit is widespread. The astronomical constant whose value is one astronomical unit is referred to as unit distance and is given the symbol A. [Wikipedia]
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomical_unit
astronomicalunit
AstronomicalUnit
3600.0
0.0
MTK
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/squareMetre
m2
m²
The S I unit of area is the square metre.
 QUDT
SquareMetre
3600.0
AmountConcentrationUnit
SodiumSymbol
1e+18
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WBPERM
Wb.m1
Wb/m
SI derived unit weber divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Weber Per Metre
WeberPerMetre
Causality is the fundamental concept describing how entities affect each other, and occurs before time and space relations.
Embracing a strong reductionistic view, causality originates at quantum entities level.
The superclass of all causal EMMO relations.
Each pair of entities is either in isCauseOf or isNotCauseOf relation. The two are mutually exclusive.
causal
A symbolic construct that provides informations about the chemical proportions of the elements that constitute a chemical compound or a specific molecule.
A chemical formula may also include other symbols such as parentheses, plus and minus signs, brackets
ChemicalFormula
1.0
Centi
0.0
Atom subclass for vanadium.
VanadiumAtom
GreenAntiQuark
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NuclearRadius
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3535676
1019.1
Conventional radius of sphere in which the nuclear matter is included,
NuclearRadius
Atom subclass for rhenium.
RheniumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RichardsonConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105883079
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130630
1226
Parameter in the expression for the thermionic emission current density J for a metal in terms of the thermodynamic temperature T and work function.
RichardsonConstant
1.0
TechnetiumSymbol
A computational application that uses existing data to predict the behaviour of a system without providing a identifiable analogy with the original object.
DataBasedSimulationSoftware
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/StandardAbsoluteActivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89406159
923
For a substance in a mixture, the absolute activity of the pure substance at the same temperature but at standard pressure.
StandardAbsoluteActivityInAMixture
StandardAbsoluteActivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Wavelength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q41364
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031010
https://dbpedia.org/page/Wavelength
319
Length of the repetition interval of a wave.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavelength
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06659
Wavelength
0.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERHR
deg.h1
deg/h
°/h
"Degree per Hour" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/h.
 QUDT
Degree per Hour
DegreePerHour
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERHR
/h
h1
/hr
A reciprocal unit of time for `reciprocal hour` or "inverse hour".
 QUDT
Reciprocal Hour
ReciprocalHour
T1 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LandeGFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1191684
1014.1
Quotient of the magnetic dipole moment of an atom, and the product of the total angular momentum quantum number and the Bohr magneton.
GFactorOfAtom
LandeFactor
ArithmeticOperator
3600.0
CausalParticle
From Latin particula (“small part, particle”), diminutive of pars (“part, piece”).
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TONNEPERMIN
t.min1
t/min
unit ton divided by the unit for time minute
 QUDT
Tonne Per Minute
TonnePerMinute
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Heat
56.1
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02752
Heat is energy in transfer to or from a thermodynamic system, by mechanisms other than thermodynamic work or transfer of matter.
AmountOfHeat
Heat
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Reactance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q193972
651.3
The imaginary part of the impedance.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_reactance
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05162
The opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.
Reactance
ElectricReactance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q192388
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1020315
https://dbpedia.org/page/Position_(geometry)
31.10
Vector quantity from the origin of a coordinate system to a point in space.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Position_(geometry)
PositionVector
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/IsentropicCompressibility
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2990695
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130432
55.2
IsentropicCompressibility
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/FermiAngularWavenumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105554303
129.2
angular wavenumber of electrons in states on the Fermi sphere
FermiAnglularRepetency
FermiAnglularWaveNumber
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2HZ4
m2.Hz4
m²⋅Hz⁴
Square metres quartic Hertz
SquareMetreQuarticHertz
Mt
271.134
AmericiumSymbol
DOI to corresponding concept in IUPAC
https://goldbook.iupac.org/
iupacReference
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Mass
41
Property of a physical body that express its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a force is applied.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03709
Mass
1.0
A meson with total spin 1 and odd parit.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vector_meson
VectorMeson
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliSEC
ms1
/ms
Reciprocal millisecond
ReciprocalMilliSecond
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MeanEnergyImparted
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99526969
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811244
1080.2
Expectation value of the energy imparted.
MeanEnergyImparted
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ParticleFluenceRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98497410
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950116
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8810419
1044
Differential quotient of fluence Φ with respect to time.
ParticleFluenceRate
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalEfficiency
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1452104
525.1
ThermalEfficiency
ThermodynamicEfficiency
Superclass for all units prefixed with "zetta" (1e21).
ZettaPrefixedUnit
0.0
4
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/ASEC
A.s
A⋅s
product out of the SI base unit ampere and the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Ampere Second
AmpereSecond
Atom subclass for americium.
AmericiumAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LMSEC
lm.s
lm⋅s
In photometry, the lumen second is the SI derived unit of luminous energy. It is based on the lumen, the SI unit of luminous flux, and the second, the SI base unit of time. The lumen second is sometimes called the talbot (symbol T). An older name for the lumen second was the lumberg.
 QUDT
lumen second
LumenSecond
Measurement unit obtained by dividing a given measurement unit by an integer SI prefix greater than one.
SIMetricSubMultipleUnit
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/FundamentalReciprocalLatticeVector
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105475399
122.2
Fundamental translation vectors for the reciprocal lattice.
FundamentalReciprocalLatticeVector
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERN
m2.N1
m²/N
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2 divided by the derived SI unit newton
 QUDT
Square Metre Per Newton
SquareMetrePerNewton
1.0
0.0
2 * a  b = c
An 'equation' that has parts two 'polynomial's
AlgebricEquation
LutetiumSymbol
The entity (or agent, or observer, or cognitive entity) who connects 'Sign', 'Interpretant' and 'Object'.
For example, the ontologist may be interest in cataloguing in the EMMO how the same object (e.g. a cat) is addressed using different signs (e.g. cat, gatto, chat) by different interpreters (e.g. english, italian or french people).
The same applies for the results of measurements: the ontologist may be interest to represent in the EMMO how different measurement processes (i.e. semiosis) lead to different quantitative results (i.e. signs) according to different measurement devices (i.e. interpreters).
The interpreter is not the ontologist, being the ontologist acting outside the ontology at the metaontology level.
On the contrary, the interpreter is an agent recognized by the ontologist. The semiotic branch of the EMMO is the tool used by the ontologist to represent an interpreter's semiotic activity.
Interpreter
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VA
V.A
V⋅A
product of the SI derived unit volt and the SI base unit ampere
 QUDT
Volt Ampere
VoltAmpere
Forming of vessel parts from a flat mould into a threedimensional shape by means of a press and tools, whereby material is neither removed nor added
DIN EN 13831:200712
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERMOL
m3.mol1
m3/mol
m³/mol
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure. It is equal to the molar mass (M) divided by the mass density. It has the SI unit cubic metres per mole m3/mol, although it is more practical to use the units cubic decimetres per mole dm3/mol for gases and cubic centimetres per mole cm3/mol for liquids and solids.
 QUDT
Cubic Metre per Mole
CubicMetrePerMole
0.0
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two masses.
Unit for mass fraction.
MassFractionUnit
1.0
CompiledLanguage
An 'Physical' that is used as sign ("semeion" in greek) that stands for another 'Physical' through an semiotic process.
A novel is made of chapters, paragraphs, sentences, words and characters (in a direct parthood mereological hierarchy).
Each of them are 'sign's.
A character can be the atomistic 'sign' for the class of texts.
The horizontal segment in the character "A" is direct part of "A" but it is not a 'sign' itself.
For plain text we can propose the ASCII symbols, for math the fundamental math symbols.
A 'Sign' can have temporaldirectparts which are 'Sign' themselves.
A 'Sign' usually havs 'sign' spatial direct parts only up to a certain elementary semiotic level, in which the part is only a 'Physical' and no more a 'Sign' (i.e. it stands for nothing). This elementary semiotic level is peculiar to each particular system of signs (e.g. text, painting).
Just like an 'Elementary' in the 'Physical' branch, each 'Sign' branch should have an atomistic mereological part.
According to Peirce, 'Sign' includes three subcategories:
 symbols: that stand for an object through convention
 indeces: that stand for an object due to causal continguity
 icons: that stand for an object due to similitudes e.g. in shape or composition
Sign
Atom subclass for promethium.
PromethiumAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2SR
m2.sr
m²⋅sr
"Square Meter Steradian" is a unit for 'Area Angle' expressed as m²sr.
 QUDT
Square Metre Steradian
SquareMetreSteradian
Atom subclass for terbium.
TerbiumAtom
Screwing (screwing on, screwing in, screwing tight) is joining by pressing on by means of a selflocking thread (from: DIN 8593 Part 3/09.85).
Schrauben
Screwing
The EMMO conceptualises the world using the primitive concepts of causality and parthood. Parthood is about the composition of world entities starting from other more fundamental entities. Causality is about the interactions between world entities.
The quantum is the smallest indivisible part of any world entity. Quantum individuals are the fundamental causal constituents of the universe, since it is implied that causality originates from quantumtoquantum interactions. Quantums are nodimensional, and their aggregation makes spacetime emerge from their causal structure. Causality between macro entities (i.e. entities made of more than one quantum) is explained as the sum of the causality relations between their quantum constituents.
The fundamental distinction between world entities is direct causality selfconnectedness: a world entity can be selfconnected xor not selfconnected depending on the causality network of its fundamental components.
Void regions do not exist in the EMMO, or in other words there is no spacetime without entities, since space and time are measured quantities following a causality relation between entities (spacetime emerges as relational property not as a selfstanding entity).
Entities are not placed in space or time: space and time are always relative between entities and are measured. In other words, space and time relations originates from causality interactions.
While EMMO mereocausality conceptualisation can be used on any possibile domain, so that a quantum can be a Lego brick or an furniture component, it can be better understood when a quantum is elucidated as the smallest measured time interval of existence of an elementary particle (e.g. quark, photon).
Axiom not included in the theory because of OWL 2 DL global restrictions for decidability.
https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/RECowl2syntax20121211/#Global_Restrictions_on_Axioms_in_OWL_2_DL
Matter
From Latin materia (“matter, stuff, material”), from mater (“mother”).
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/AvogadroConstant
The number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
It defines the base unit mole in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00543
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Avogadro_constant) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
AvogadroConstant
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PackingFraction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98058276
1023.1
Quotient of relative mass excess and the nucleon number.
PackingFraction
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800006.
ElectromagneticQuantity
1.0
PhysicalObject
From Latin physica "study of nature" (and Ancient Greek φυσικός, “natural”), and Medieval Latin obiectum (“object”, literally “thrown against”).
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ShortRangeOrderParameter
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105495979
125.1
fraction of nearestneighbour atom pairs in an Ising ferromagnet having magnetic moments in one direction, minus the fraction having magnetic moments in the opposite direction
ShortRangeOrderParameter
65.38
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/CyclotronAngularFrequency
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97708211
1016
Quotient of the product of the electric charge of a particle and the magnitude of the magnetic flux density of the magnetic field, and the particle mass.
CyclotronAngularFrequency
NiobiumSymbol
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFlux
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4374882
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211177
622.2
Magnetic flux the integration area of which is such that magnetic field lines cross it in the same orientation more than once.
LinkedFlux
A quantity that is the result of a welldefined measurement procedure.
The specification of a measurand requires knowledge of the kind of quantity, description of the state of the phenomenon, body, or substance carrying the quantity, including any relevant component, and the chemical entities involved.
 VIM
MeasuredProperty
Quantities declared under the ISO 80000.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Quantities
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:80000:1:ed1:v1:en:sec:3.1
InternationalSystemOfQuantity
A proper part of the whole that is not Spatial or Temporal.
This relation identifies parts of a 4D object that do not fully cover the lifetime extent of the whole (spatial) nor the full spatial extent (temporal).
This relation is a filler, to categorise the parts of an entity that are not covered by the other parthood relations.
A proper part is then the disjoint union of: spatial part, temporal part and spatio temporal part relations.
hasSpatialPartialPart
hasSpatialSection
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Exposure
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q336938
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950132
1088
Absolute value of the electric charge of ions produced in dry air by X or gamma radiation per mass of air.
Exposure
Continuous or stepwise pressure forming with one or more rotating tools (rollers), without or with additional tools, e.g. plugs or mandrels, rods, guide tools
Walzen
Rolling
A graphical object aimed to represent schematically the conceptual, tempral or spatial structure of another object.
Representation
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Dimensionless
A quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned and with a corresponding unit of measurement in the SI of the unit one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimensionless_quantity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01742
ISQDimensionlessQuantity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89556185
927.3
StandardAbsoluteActivityOfSolvent
The raw material or partially finished piece that is shaped by performing various operations.
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/workpiece
11
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERSEC2
K.s2
K/s^2
K/s²
`Kelvin per Square Second` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time Squared' expressed as K / s².
 QUDT
Kelvin per Square Second
KelvinPerSquareSecond
The equals symbol.
Equals
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ExtentOfReaction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q899046
931
Difference between equilibrium and initial amount of a substance, divided by its stoichiometric number.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02283
ExtentOfReaction
Atom subclass for potassium.
PotassiumAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PALPERSEC
Pa.L.s1
Pa⋅L/s
product out of the SI derived unit pascal and the unit litre divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Pascal Litre Per Second
PascalLitrePerSecond
2dimensional array who's spatial direct parts are vectors.
2DArray
Matrix
TungstenSymbol
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFluxDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q30204
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211119
621
Strength of the magnetic field.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03686
Often denoted B.
MagneticInduction
MagneticFluxDensity
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by a bending stress.
Biegeumformen
FlexuralForming
hasManufacturedOutput
Relates a quantity to its metrological reference through a semiotic process.
In EMMO version 1.0.0beta6, physical quantities used the hasMetrologicalReference object property to relate them to their units via physical dimensionality. This was simplified in 1.0.0alpha3 in order to make reasoning faster.
The restriction (e.g. for the physical quantity Length)
Length hasMetrologicalReference only (hasPhysicsDimension only LengthDimension)
was in 1.0.0alpha3 changed to
Length hasPhysicsDimension some LengthDimension
Likewise were the universal restrictions on the corresponding unit changed to excistential. E.g.
Metre hasPhysicsDimension only LengthDimension
was changed to
Metre hasPhysicsDimension some LengthDimension
The label of this class was also changed from PhysicsDimension to PhysicalDimension.
hasMetrologicalReference
Torus
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERSEC2
m.s2
m/s2
m/s²
The `meter per Square second` is the unit of acceleration in the International System of Units (SI). As a derived unit it is composed from the SI base units of length, the metre, and the standard unit of time, the second. Its symbol is written in several forms as m/s², or m s⁻². As acceleration, the unit is interpreted physically as change in velocity or speed per time interval, that is, `metre per second per second`.
 QUDT
Metre per Square Second
MetrePerSquareSecond
Software
From soft + ware, by contrast with hardware (“the computer itself”). Coined by Paul Niquette in 1953.
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q11027905
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130308
44
Mass density ρ of a substance divided by the mass density ρ0 of a reference substance, under conditions that should be specified for both substances.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05262
RelativeDensity
RelativeMassDensity
The etymology annotation explains the origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.
Definitions are usually taken from Wiktionary.
The etymology annotation is usually applied to rdfs:label entities, to better understand the connection between a label and the concept it concisely represents.
etymology
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PotentialEnergy
428.1
The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or orientation in a potential field.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04778
PotentialEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97010809
104.2
Rest mass of a nuclide X in the ground state.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04258
NuclidicMass
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERSEC
cm3.s1
cm3/s
cm³/s
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Second
CubicCentiMetrePerSecond
MechanicalMobilityUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERM2DAY
mol.m2.d1
mol/(m²⋅day)
quantity of matter per unit area per unit of time.
 QUDT
Moles per square metre per day
MolePerSquareMetrePerDay
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularReciprocalLatticeVector
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105475278
122.1
Vector whose scalar products with all fundamental lattice vectors are integral multiples of 2pi.
AngularReciprocalLatticeVector
UpQuarkType
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/EquilibriumConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q857809
for solutions, product for all substances B of concentration c_B of substance B in power of its stoichiometric number v_B: K_p = \sum_B{c_B^{v_B}}.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equilibrium_constant
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02177
The physical dimension can change based on the stoichiometric numbers of the substances involved.
EquilibriumConstantConcentrationBasis
EquilibriumConstant
T1 L3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
NickelSymbol
9.0121831
AntiNeutrinoType
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q73695445
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130332
423.2
DynamicFrictionFactor
KineticFrictionFactor
55.845
12.011
1.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Pressure
414.1
The force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04819
Pressure
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q172623
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140119
915
quotient of the amount of substance nB of solute B by the mass m of the solvent: bB = nB / m.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03970
AmountPerMass
Molality
AmountTemperatureUnit
1.0
Relates a prefixed unit to its metric prefix part.
hasMetricPrefix
The class of individuals that stand for gravitons elementary particles.
While this particle is only supposed to exist, the EMMO approach to classical and quantum systems represents fields as made of particles.
For this reason graviton is an useful concept to homogenize the approach between different fields.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graviton
Graviton
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Magnetization
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q856711
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211152
624
At a given point within a domain of quasiinfinitesimal volume V, vector quantity equal to the magnetic area moment m of the substance contained within the domain divided by the volume V.
Magnetization
Mc
CapacitancePerLengthUnit
SquarePressurePerSquareTimeUnit
An holistic system of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives.
ISO 55000:2014
organization: person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives
Organisation
A composite physical object made of fermions (i.e. having mass and occupying space).
Substance
Technology refers to methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes.
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/it/dizionario/inglese/technology
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2K
m2.K
m²⋅K
`Square Meter Kelvin` is a unit for 'Area Temperature' expressed as m²K.
 QUDT
Square Metre Kelvin
SquareMetreKelvin
1.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ResidualResistivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q25098876
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8151361
1217
for metals, the resistivity extrapolated to zero thermodynamic temperature
ResidualResistivity
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMK
m1.K1
/(m⋅K)
Per Meter Kelvin Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /m.k.
 QUDT
Reciprocal Metre Kelvin
ReciprocalMetreKelvin
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/GrandCanonicalPartitionFunction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q96176022
935.3
GrandPartionFunction
GrandCanonicalPartionFunction
A strict fundamental object overcrossing a manufacturing process, the intersection being the agent that participates and drives the manufacturing process.
Manufacturer
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid
Quantum
From Latin quantum (plural quanta) "as much as, so much as".
Process for joining two (base) materials by means of an adhesive polymer material
DIN EN 620471:201612
39
204.38
0.0
An interpreted computer language for job control in computing.
Unix shell.
Batch programming languages.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_language
CommandLanguage
A coarse dispersion of solids in a liquid continuum phase.
Mud
LiquidSolidSuspension
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificHeatCapacityAtSaturation
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q75775005
516.4
Specific heat capacity at saturated vaport pressure.
SpecificHeatCapacityAtSaturatedVaporPressure
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LinearEnergyTransfer
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1699996
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950130
1085
Measure for the energy lost by charged particles per traversed distance, including only interactions up to a given energy.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03550
LinearEnergyTransfer
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1259526
1045
Mean energy, excluding rest energy, of the particles that are emitted, transferred, or received.
RadiantEnergy
FrequencyPerAreaTimeUnit
A semiotic relation connecting an index sign to the interpreter (deducer) in a deduction process.
hasDeducer
MendeleviumSymbol
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LPERHR
L.h1
L/h
L/hr
Unit litre divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
Litre Per Hour
LitrePerHour
GreenTopQuark
1.0
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERKiloGM
m2.kg1
m²/kg
Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) is a unit in the category of Specific Area. It is also known as square meters per kilogram, square metre per kilogram, square metres per kilogram, square meter/kilogram, square metre/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) has a dimension of M1L2 where M is mass, and L is length. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Square Metre per Kilogram
SquareMetrePerKilogram
CubicElectricChargeLengthPerSquareEnergyUnit
0.001
Subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks, at least 3.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon
Baryon
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERMIN
K.min1
K/min
`Kelvin per Minute` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time' expressed as K / m.
 QUDT
Kelvin per Minute
KelvinPerMinute
Atom subclass for dysprosium.
DysprosiumAtom
LithiumSymbol
A 'graphical' aimed to represent a geometrical concept.
A geometrical object can be expressed in many different forms.
For example, a line can be expressed by:
a) an equation like y=mx+q, which is both an 'equation' and a 'geometrical'
b) a line drawn with a pencil on a paper, which is simply a 'graphical' object
c) a set of axioms, when the properties of a line are inferred by the interpreter reading them, that are both 'graphical' and also 'formula'
The case a) is a geometrical and mathematical, b) is geometrical and pictorial, while c) is geometrical and a composition of idiomatic strings.
Geometrical
T+4 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ActivePower
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q20820042
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311142
656
Average power over a period.
ActivePower
"Quantity, defined by a conventional measurement procedure, for which a total ordering relation can be established, according to magnitude, with other quantities of the same kind, but for which no algebraic operations among those quantities exist"
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
Hardness
Resilience
ordinal quantity
"Ordinal quantities, such as Rockwell C hardness, are usually not considered to be part of a system of quantities because they are related to other quantities through empirical relations only."
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
OrdinalQuantity
A person or organisation acting as a contact point for enquiries about the ontology resource
The annotation should include an email address.
contact
MTS
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERSEC
http://www.ontologyofunitsofmeasure.org/resource/om2/metrePerSecondTime
m.s1
m/s
Metre per second is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds.
The official SI symbolic abbreviation is mu00b7s1, or equivalently either m/s.
 QUDT
MetrePerSecond
Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM).
The Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) is a code system intended to include all units of measures being contemporarily used in international science, engineering, and business. The purpose is to facilitate unambiguous electronic communication of quantities together with their units.
https://ucum.org/
ucumCode
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/CubicExpansionCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q74761076
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130428
53.2
Quantity characterizing the variation with thermodynamic temperature T of the volume V of a body, under given conditions.
alpha_V = (1/V) * (dV/dT)
CubicExpansionCoefficient
Superclass for all units prefixed with "nano" (1e9).
NanoPrefixedUnit
ThermalResistanceUnit
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/StoichiometricNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q95443720
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140122
929
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06025
StoichiometricNumberOfSubstance
81
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMSEC
N.m.s
N⋅m⋅s
The SI derived unit of angular momentum.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SI_derived_unit
Newton Metre Second
NewtonMetreSecond
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q334631
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130423
520.5
Type of thermodynamic potential; useful for calculating reversible work in certain systems.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02629
GibbsFreeEnergy
GibbsEnergy
Thermal ablation is the separation of material particles in solid, liquid or gaseous state by heat processes as well as the removal of these material particles by mechanical or electromagnetic forces (from: DIN
Thermisches Abtragen
ThermalCutting
Atom subclass for actinium.
ActiniumAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroPA
uPa
μPa
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit pascal
 QUDT
MicroPascal
T0 L+5 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The set of established forms or methods of an organized body for accomplishing a certain task or tasks (Wiktionary).
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/procedure
YtterbiumSymbol
Particles composed of two or more quarks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadron
Hadron
A meson with spin zero and odd parity.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscalar_meson
PseudoscalarMeson
The part is not connected with the rest item or members with hasNext (or its inverse) only or hasContact relations only.
hasHeterogeneousPart
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Radius
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q173817
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130125
https://dbpedia.org/page/Radius
31.6
Distance from the centre of a circle to the circumference.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radius
Radius
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/OsmoticPressure
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q193135
928
Measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent by osmosis.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.O04344
OsmoticPressure
1.0
E
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERM2
J.m2
J/m2
J/m²
Joule Per Square Meter (J/m²) is a unit in the category of Energy density. It is also known as joules per square meter, joule per square metre, joule/square meter, joule/square metre. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system.
 QUDT
Joule per Square Metre
JoulePerSquareMetre
Atom subclass for protactinium.
ProtactiniumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificActivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2823748
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950108
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8810443
1028
Quotient of the activity A of a sample and the mass m of that sample.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05790
MassicActivity
SpecificActivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HoleDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105971101
1229.2
Number of holes in valence band per volume.
HoleDensity
88
FiberReinforcePlasticManufacturing
t
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/TotalLinearStoppingPower
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q908474
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950127
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811249
1054
For charged particles of a given type and energy E0 the differential quotient of E with respect to x, where E is the mean energy lost by the charged particles in traversing a distance x in the given material.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06035
LinearStoppingPower
TotalLinearStoppingPower
BlueCharmQuark
1dimensional array who's spatial direct parts are numbers.
1DArray
LinearArray
Vector
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer.
SupplyChain
0.0
T0 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3305038
36
Quotient of the traversed circular path length of a point in space during a rotation and its distance from the axis or centre of rotation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_displacement
AngularDisplacement
RotationalDisplacement
T3 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/FermiTemperature
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105942324
1228
in the free electron model, the Fermi energy divided by the Boltzmann constant
FermiTemperature
1000000000000.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERHZ
m2.Hz1
m²/Hz
Square metres per Hertz
SquareMetrePerHertz
TennessineSymbol
0.0
A process which is an holistic spatial part of an object.
Blood circulation in a human body.
A constitutive process is a process that is holistically relevant for the definition of the whole.
ConstitutiveProcess
Nd
54
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERKiloGM
m3.kg1
m3/kg
m³/kg
Cubic Meter Per Kilogram (m3/kg) is a unit in the category of Specific volume. It is also known as cubic meters per kilogram, cubic metre per kilogram, cubic metres per kilogram, cubic meter/kilogram, cubic metre/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Cubic Meter Per Kilogram (m3/kg) has a dimension of M1L3 where M is mass, and L is length. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Cubic Metre per Kilogram
CubicMetrePerKilogram
Division
A quantum decay is a fundamental causal system that is expressed as a complete bipartite directed graph K(1,n).
QuantumDecay
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/FermiEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q431335
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130618
1227.1
in a metal, highest occupied energy level at zero thermodynamic temperature, where energy level means the energy of an electron in the interior of a substance
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02340
FermiEnergy
Zr
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Force
49.1
Any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02480
Force
hasCharacteriser
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by a bending stress
DIN 8586:200309
An 'observation' that results in a quantitative comparison of a 'property' of an 'object' with a standard reference based on a well defined mesurement procedure.
measurement
A measurement always implies a causal interaction between the object and the observer.
A measurement is the process of experimentally obtaining one or more measurement results that can reasonably be attributed to a quantity.
Measurement
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TONNEPERHR
t.h1
t/hr
unit tonne divided by the unit for time hour
 QUDT
Tonne Per Hour
TonnePerHour
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERCentiM3
C.cm3
C/cm3
C/cm³
derived SI unit coulomb divided by the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 3
 QUDT
Coulomb Per Cubic Centimetre
CoulombPerCubicCentiMetre
Sc
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NuclearQuadrupoleMoment
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97921226
1018
z component of the diagonalized tensor of nuclear quadrupole moment, in the quantum state with the nuclear spin in the field direction (z).
NuclearQuadrupoleMoment
fabrication of objects through the deposition of a material using a print head, nozzle or another printer technology
Note 1 to entry: This term is often used in a nontechnical context synonymously with additive manufacturing (3.1.2) and, in these cases, typically associated with machines used for nonindustrial purposes including personal use.
ISO/ASTM 52900:2021(en), 3.3.1
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificEnergyImparted
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99566195
1081.2
In nuclear physics, energy imparted per mass.
SpecificEnergyImparted
We call "decoding" the act of recognise the variation according to a particular rule and generate another equivalent schema (e.g. in the agent's cognitive apparatus, as another form of data).
We call "interpreting" the act of providing semantic meaning to data, which is covered by the semiotic perspective.
The electronical state of the RAM of my laptop is decoded by it as ASCII characters and printed on the screen.
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Height
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q208826
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130121
https://dbpedia.org/page/Height
31.3
Minimum length of a straight line segment between a point and a reference line or reference surface.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Height
Height
Sg
1.602177e19
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106553458
916
Energy to be added to or removed from a system under constant temperature and pressure to undergo a complete phase transition.
LatentHeatOfPhaseTransition
1.0
Atom subclass for samarium.
SamariumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SurfaceActivityDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98103005
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950110
1030
Quotient of the activity A of a sample and the total area S of the surface of that sample.
SurfaceActivityDensity
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticQuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2009727
1013.4
Atomic quantum number related to the z component lz, jz or sz, of the orbital, total, or spin angular momentum.
MagneticQuantumNumber
0.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NSECPERRAD
N⋅s/rad
Newton seconds measured per radian
 QUDT
Newton seconds per radian
NewtonSecondPerRadian
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElementaryCharge
105.1
The magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron. It defines the base unit Ampere in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02032
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Elementary_charge) is outdated as May 20, 2019. It is now an exact quantity.
ElementaryCharge
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PlaneAngle
Ratio of circular arc length to radius.
35
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00346
PlaneAngle
Angle
Manufacturing by separating particles of material from a solid body by nonmechanical means. Ablation refers both to the removal of layers of material and to the separation of workpiece parts. The production process of ablation is considered in its stationary instantaneous state, independently of the application of auxiliary processes necessary to initiate the process. Ablation is divided into three subgroups according to the order point of view (OGP) "process in the effective zone on the surface of the workpiece":  thermal ablation;  chemical ablation;  electrochemical ablation.
Abtragen
Ablation
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DynamicViscosity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q15152757
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130334
424
The measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow when an external force is applied.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01877
Viscosity
DynamicViscosity
44
ElectricPotentialPerTemperatureUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMNanoMSR
m1.nm1.sr1
/(m⋅nm⋅sr)
Reciprocal metre per nanometre per steradian
ReciprocalMetrePerNanoMetrePerSteradian
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERCentiM
N.cm1
N/cm
SI derived unit newton divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Newton Per Centimetre
NewtonPerCentiMetre
Gustatory
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Diameter
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130127
https://dbpedia.org/page/Diameter
31.5
maximal distance of two points of an object, in a given direction or along a straight line passing through the centre.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diameter
The diameter of a circle or a sphere is twice its radius.
Diameter
1.0
127.6
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERC
m3.C1
m³/C
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Cubic Metre per Coulomb
CubicMetrePerCoulomb
115
ZincSymbol
A chemical entity comprises the two different ways to represents matter: as single recognizable particle entity (molecular entity) and as a composition of particle entities (substance).
This distinction is not well assessed in actual chemical nomenclature, in which an element name refers to both the pure elemental substance or the atom.
In the EMMO we force the adoption of a more strict categorization based on mereotopology.
The class Material hosts the subclasses for which a substance can be identified without necessarily considering its nature of molecule/atom or substance (e.g. hydrocarbon is the class of both hydrocarbon molecules or gases).
ChemicalEntity
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAMPERSEC2
Pa.m.s2
Pa⋅m/s²
Pascal metres per square second
PascalMetrePerSquareSecond
293.204
The relation between a collection and one of its item members.
hasMember
A foam of trapped gas in a liquid.
LiquidFoam
AMP
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/A
A
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Ampere
The ampere, symbol A, is the SI unit of electric current. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the elementary charge e to be 1.602176634×10−19 when expressed in the unit C, which is equal to A s, where the second is defined in terms of ∆νCs.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ampere?oldid=494026699
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00300
Ampere
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q830311
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211252
1235.2
Critical thermodynamic temperature of an antiferromagnet.
NeelTemperature
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Energy
5201
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
Energy is often defined as "ability of a system to perform work", but it might be misleading since is not necessarily available to do work.
Energy
FormingFromChip
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERMIN
cm3.min1
cm3/min
cm³/min
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit minute
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Minute
CubicCentiMetrePerMinute
Precise and univocal description of an ontological entity in the framework of an axiomatic system.
A definition univocally determines a OWL entity using necessary and sufficient conditions referring to other OWL entities.
definition
1000.0
1.0
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q657009
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031009
321
Vector k in the expression ω t−k⋅r+ϑ0 of the phase of a sinusoidal wave.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_vector
WaveVector
RutherfordiumSymbol
1000.0
HassiumSymbol
174.9668
Graphical
From the Ancient Greek γραφή (graphḗ) which means drawing, painting, writing, a writing, description, and from γράφω (gráphō) which means scratch, carve.
The term graphical is used in etymological sense, comprising both writings and visual arts.
Tl
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQPERM3
Bq.m3
Bq/m3
Bq/m³
The SI derived unit of unit in the category of Radioactivity concentration.
 QUDT
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsradioactivity_concentrationbecquerel_per_cubic_meter.cfm
Becquerel per Cubic Metre
BecquerelPerCubicMetre
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q415829
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030704
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1410101
37
Angular measure between the positive real axis and the radius of the polar representation of the complex number in the complex plane.
PhaseAngle
CarbonSymbol
BQL
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQ
Bq
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Becquerel
Radioactive decays per second.
SI unit for radioactive activity.
The SI derived unit of activity, usually meaning radioactivity. "Radioactivity" is caused when atoms disintegrate, ejecting energetic particles. One becquerel is the radiation caused by one disintegration per second; this is equivalent to about 27.0270 picocuries (pCi). The unit is named for a French physicist, AntoineHenri Becquerel (18521908), the discoverer of radioactivity. Note: both the becquerel and the hertz are basically defined as one event per second, yet they measure different things. The hertz is used to measure the rates of events that happen periodically in a fixed and definite cycle. The becquerel is used to measure the rates of events that happen sporadically and unpredictably, not in a definite cycle.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Becquerel?oldid=493710036
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.B00624
Becquerel
FluorineSymbol
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AbsorbedDose
Energy imparted to matter by ionizing radiation in a suitable small element of volume divided by the mass of that element of volume.
1081.1
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00031
AbsorbedDose
The class of individuals that satisfy a whole defining criteria (i.e. belongs to a subclass of whole) and have no proper parts that satisfy that same criteria (no parts that are of the same type of the whole).
StrictFundamental
A language construct that provides information about the consitutents of a substance and their fractions or amounts.
ChemicalComposition
A causal object whose properties variation are encoded by an agent and that can be decoded by another agent according to a specific rule.
A Radio Morse Code transmission can be addressed by combination of perspectives.
Physicalistic: the electromagnetic pulses can be defined as individual A (of type Field) and the strip of paper coming out a printer receiver can be defined as individual B (of type Matter).
Data: both A and B are also DiscreteData class individuals. In particular they may belong to a MorseData class, subclass of DiscreteData.
Perceptual: B is an individual belonging to the graphical entities expressing symbols. In particular is a formula under the MorseLanguage class, made of a combination of . and  symbols.
Semiotics: A and B can be signs if they refers to something else (e.g. a report about a fact, names).
A signal through a cable. A sound wave. Words on a page. The pattern of excited states within a computer RAM.
We call "decoding" the act of recognise the variation according to a particular rule and generate another equivalent schema (e.g. in the agent's cognitive apparatus, as another form of data).
We call "interpreting" the act of providing semantic meaning to data, which is covered by the semiotic perspective.
https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data
Variations in data are generated by an agent (not necessarily human) and are intended to be decoded by the same or another agent using the same encoding rules.
Data are always generated by an agent but not necessarily possess a semantic meaninig, either because it's lost or unknown or because simply they possess none (e.g. a random generation of symbols).
A data object may be used as the physical basis for a sign, under Semiotics perspective.
EncodedVariation
EncodedData
TransportationDevice
ISO9000Reference
ThermalSprayingForming
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PowerFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q750454
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311146
658
Under periodic conditions, ratio of the absolute value of the active power P to the apparent power S.
PowerFactor
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERSEC2
m2.s2
m²/s²
Square metres per square second
SquareMetrePerSquareSecond
ElectricChargePerTemperatureUnit
1.0
Magnetizing
1
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/PlanckConstant
The quantum of action. It defines the kg base unit in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04685
PlanckConstant
A workflow whose output ca be used as input for another workflow of the same type, iteratively, within the framework of a larger workflow.
Jacobi method numerical step, involving the multiplication between a matrix A and a vector x, whose result is used to update the vector x.
IterativeStep
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERHR
cm3.h1
cm3/h
cm³/hr
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
Cubic Centimetre Per Hour
CubicCentiMetrePerHour
A construction language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformation_language
Tritium, XSLT, XQuery, STX, FXT, XDuce, CDuce, HaXml, XMLambda, FleXML
TransformationLanguage
1e15
SandMolds
FAR
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/FARAD
F
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Farad
The SI unit of electric capacitance. Very early in the study of electricity scientists discovered that a pair of conductors separated by an insulator can store a much larger charge than an isolated conductor can store. The better the insulator, the larger the charge that the conductors can hold. This property of a circuit is called capacitance, and it is measured in farads. One farad is defined as the ability to store one coulomb of charge per volt of potential difference between the two conductors. This is a natural definition, but the unit it defines is very large. In practical circuits, capacitance is often measured in microfarads, nanofarads, or sometimes even in picofarads (10⁻¹² farad, or trillionths of a farad). The unit is named for the British physicist Michael Faraday (17911867), who was known for his work in electricity and electrochemistry.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farad?oldid=493070876
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02320
Measurement unit for electric capacitance.
Farad
ElectricCurrentPerEnergyUnit
A material is a crystal if it has essentially a sharp diffraction pattern.
A solid is a crystal if it has essentially a sharp diffraction pattern. The word essentially means that most of the intensity of the diffraction is concentrated in relatively sharp Bragg peaks, besides the always present diffuse scattering. In all cases, the positions of the diffraction peaks can be expressed by
H=∑ni=1hia∗i (n≥3)
Crystal
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q88863324
96.4
Gibbs energy per amount of substance.
MolarGibbsEnergy
267.122
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ModulusOfImpedance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q25457909
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311244
651.4
ModulusOfImpedance
A symbol that stands for a concept in the language of the meterological domain of ISO 80000.
MetrologicalSymbol
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAPERK
Pa.K1
P/K
Pascal per Kelvin
PascalPerKelvin
Atom subclass for phosphorus.
PhosphorusAtom
The symbol for a specific chemical element, that can stand both for an atom or a substance.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01022
The IUPAC Gold Book defines the a chemical element both as:
 a species of atoms; all atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus
 a pure chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus
This qualifies a chemical element as a name and not a matter obejct that can stand for an atom or a substance.
http://publications.iupac.org/ci/2005/2701/ud.html
ChemicalElement
1.0
Atom subclass for lithium.
LithiumAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalConductance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q17176562
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130446
513
Reciprocal of the thermal resistance.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06298
ThermalConductance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1907514
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130310
45
at a given point on a twodimensional domain of quasiinfinitesimal area dA, scalar quantity equal to the mass dm within the domain divided by the area dA, thus ρA = dm/dA.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06167
AreicMass
SurfaceDensity
SurfaceMassDensity
A particle with half odd integer spin (1/2, 3/2, etc...) that follows FermiDirac statistics.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermion
FundamentalFermion
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERM2SECSR
mol.m2.s1.sr1
mol/(m²⋅s⋅sr)
Moles per square metre per second per steradian
MolePerSquareMetrePerSecondPerSteradian
A tile that is connected with other tiles with bidirectional causal relations that fall under hasNext (or its inverse) or hasContact.
This owl:ObjectProperty is, like its super property, a mere collector of direct parthoods that manifest a spatiotemporal meaningful shape.
hasWellFormedTile
hasSpatioTemporalTile
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MKPERW
m.K.W1
K⋅m/W
`Meter Kelvin per Watt` is a unit for 'Thermal Resistivity' expressed as Km/W.
 QUDT
Metre Kelvin per Watt
MetreKelvinPerWatt
A mixture in which more than one phases of matter cohexists.
Phase heterogenous mixture may share the same state of matter.
For example, immiscibile liquid phases (e.g. oil and water) constitute a mixture whose phases are clearly separated but share the same state of matter.
PhaseHeterogeneousMixture
A coarse dispersion of solid in a gas continuum phase.
Dust, sand storm.
GasSolidSuspension
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WBPERMilliM
Wb.mm1
Wb/mm
derived SI unit weber divided by the 0.001fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Weber Per Millimetre
WeberPerMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERK
K.K1
K/K
SI base unit kelvin divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
Kelvin Per Kelvin
KelvinPerKelvin
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HyperfineStructureQuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97577449
1013.8
Quantum number of an atom describing the inclination of the nuclear spin with respect to a quantization axis given by the magnetic field produced by the orbital electrons.
HyperfineStructureQuantumNumber

HUR
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HR
h
Measure of time defined as 3600 seconds.
The hour (common symbol: h or hr) is a unit of measurement of time. In modern usage, an hour comprises 60 minutes, or 3,600 seconds. It is approximately 1/24 of a mean solar day. An hour in the Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) time standard can include a negative or positive leap second, and may therefore have a duration of 3,599 or 3,601 seconds for adjustment purposes. Although it is not a standard defined by the International System of Units, the hour is a unit accepted for use with SI, represented by the symbol h.
 QUDT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02866
Hour
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassFractionOfDryMatter
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76379189
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130464
532
Quantity wd = 1 − wH2O, where wH2O is mass fraction of water.
MassFractionOfDryMatter
Deci
TransferMolding
hasConnectedPortion
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DebyeAngularWavenumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105554370
129.3
Cutoff angular wavenumber in the Debye model of the vibrational spectrum of a solid.
DebyeAngluarRepetency
DebyeAngularWaveNumber
ElectricChargePerAmountUnit
RedCharmQuark
application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts or systems in order to solve a problem or to achieve an objective which can result in a product or process
ISO 14034:201611
T2 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
From Powder, from liquid, from gas
Powder:
particles that are usually less than 1 mm in size
da una forma non propria ad una forma propria
FromNotProperShapeToWorkPiece
97
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERW
K.W1
K/W
K/W
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measure of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal thermal conductance. Absolute thermal resistance is the temperature difference across a structure when a unit of heat energy flows through it in unit time. It is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. The SI units of thermal resistance are kelvins per watt or the equivalent degrees Celsius per watt (the two are the same since as intervals).
 QUDT
Kelvin per Watt
KelvinPerWatt
Role
From French rôle, from obsolete French roule ‘roll’, referring originally to the roll of paper on which the actor's part was written.
The standard symbol for a unit.
A unit symbol may be a symbolic construct (e.g. km) or a symbol (e.g. m).
unitSymbol
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroGMPERL
ug.L1
ug/L
μg/L
0.000000001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit litre
 QUDT
Microgram Per Litre
MicroGramPerLitre
A spatial contact between two entities occurs when the two entities are in an interaction relation whose causal structure is a representation of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles (Feynman diagrams).
It means that if two entities are in contact, then there is at least a couple of elementary particles, one part of the first and one part of the second, interacting according to one of the fundamental interactions through virtual particles. This kind of connection is spacelike (i.e. interconnecting force carrier particle is offshelf).
Contacts between two entities exclude the possibility of other causal relations that are not included in a fundamental spacelike interaction.
An interaction that is the sum of direct causality relations between two entities that are interpretable as fundamental physical interactions.
Spatial contact is symmetric and irreflexive.
The contact relation is not an ordering relation since is symmetric.
hasSpatiialnteractionWith
contacts
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3
dm3
dm³
0.1fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Decimetre
CubicDeciMetre
Numeral
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERM3
m3.m3
m³/m³
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
Cubic Metre Per Cubic Metre
CubicMetrePerCubicMetre
Atom subclass for darmastadtium.
DarmastadtiumAtom
A proper part of a whole, whose parts always cover the full temporal extension of the whole within a spatial interval.
In EMMO FOL this is a defined property. In OWL temporal relations are primitive.
hasSpatialPart
1.0
A semantic object that is connected to a conventional sign by an interpreter (a declarer) according to a specific convention.
Declared
A link to a graphical representation aimed to facilitate understanding of the concept, or of an annotation.
figure
TelluriumSymbol
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strange_quark
StrangeQuark
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Enthalpy
5.203
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02141
Measurement of energy in a thermodynamic system.
Enthalpy
28.085
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificGibbsEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76360636
521.5
Gibbs energy per unit mass.
SpecificGibbsEnergy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarMass
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q145623
94
Mass per amount of substance.
MolarMass
A system arranged to setup a specific manufacturing process.
ManufacturingSystem
NonSI units mentioned in the SI.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NonSI_units_mentioned_in_the_SI
This is a list of units that are not defined as part of the International System of Units (SI), but are otherwise mentioned in the SI brouchure, because either the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) accepts their use as being multiples or submultiples of SIunits, they have important contemporary application worldwide, or are otherwise commonly encountered worldwide.
SIAcceptedUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZM
Hz.m
Hz⋅M
product of the SI derived unit hertz and the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Hertz Metre
HertzMetre
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERT2
J.T2
J/T²
A measure of the diamagnetic energy, for a Bohrradius spread around a magnetic axis, per square Tesla.
 QUDT
http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~dommelen/quantum/style_a/elecmagfld.html
Joule per Square Tesla
JoulePerSquareTesla
0.0
Metrology is the science of measurement and its application and includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement, whatever the measurement uncertainty and field of application (VIM3 2.2)
https://www.bipm.org/documents/20126/2071204/JCGM_200_2012.pdf
Widening is tensile forming to increase the circumference of a hollow body. A distinction is made between: Widening, bulging.
Weiten
Widening
70
90
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERM
deg.m1
°/m
A change of angle in one SI unit of length.
 QUDT
Degrees per metre
DegreePerMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DecayConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q11477200
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950111
1024
Disintegrations per unit time dN/dt for an atomic nucleus divided by the number of nuclei N existing at the same time t.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01538
DisintegrationConstant
DecayConstant
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarEntropy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q68972876
98
Entropy per amount of substance.
MolarEntropy
AntiQuark
hasHolisticTemporalPart
The final step of a workflow.
There may be more than one end task, if they run in parallel leading to more than one output.
EndStep
Suggestion of Rickard Armiento
CrystallineMaterial
URL to corresponing entity in QUDT.
http://www.qudt.org/2.1/catalog/qudtcatalog.html
qudtReference
1.0
T+2 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N1 J0
A material in which distributed particles of one phase are dispersed in a different continuous phase.
Dispersion
1.0
86400.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERCentiM2
C.cm2
C/cm2
C/cm²
derived SI unit coulomb divided by the 0.0001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 2
 QUDT
Coulomb Per Square Centimetre
CoulombPerSquareCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Momentum
48
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M04007
Product of mass and velocity.
Momentum
Wb
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ProtonMass
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04914
The rest mass of a proton.
ProtonMass
T3 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFlux
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q177831
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211121
https://dbpedia.org/page/Magnetic_flux
622.1
Measure of magnetism, taking account of the strength and the extent of a magnetic field.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_flux
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03684
MagneticFlux
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO numerical data entity.
hasNumericalValue
action to disassemble a product or a component by removing all or some of its constituent parts with the intent to salvage
Demontage
Dismantling
ElectricChargeDensityUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERCentiM2
J.cm2
J/cm²
derived SI unit joule divided by the 0.0001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 2
 QUDT
Joule Per Square Centimetre
JoulePerSquareCentiMetre
Shot peening is shot peening for shaping or straightening workpieces by introducing residual compressive stresses (from: DIN 8200/10.82).
Umformstrahlen
FormingBlasting
The part is not connected with the rest item or members with hasNext relation (or its inverse).
hasNonTemporalPart
Definitions are usually taken from Wiktionary.
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERSEC
K.s1
K/s
K/s
`Kelvin per Second` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time' expressed as K / s.
 QUDT
Kelvin per Second
KelvinPerSecond
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERHR
m3.h1
m3/h
m³/hr
Cubic Meter Per Hour (m3/h) is a unit in the category of Volume flow rate. It is also known as cubic meters per hour, cubic metre per hour, cubic metres per hour, cubic meter/hour, cubic metre/hour, cubic meter/hr, cubic metre/hr, flowrate. Cubic Meter Per Hour (m3/h) has a dimension of L3T1 where L is length, and T is time. It can be converted to the corresponding standard SI unit m3/s by multiplying its value by a factor of 0.00027777777.
 QUDT
Cubic Metre per Hour
CubicMetrePerHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Power
427
645
Rate of transfer of energy per unit time.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04792
Power
1.0
AreaTimeTemperatureUnit
0.0
TimePerVolumeUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERMilliM
N.mm1
N/mm
SI derived unit newton divided by the 0.001fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Newton Per Millimetre
NewtonPerMilliMetre
ElectronAntiNeutrino
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DiffusionCoefficientForFluenceRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98876254
1065
Proportionality constant between the particle current density J and the gradient of the particle fluence rate.
DiffusionCoefficientForFluenceRate
A participant that is the driver of the process.
A catalyst. A bus driver. A substance that is initiating a reaction that would not occur without its presence.
An agent is not necessarily human.
An agent plays an active role within the process.
An agent is a participant of a process that would not occur without it.
Agent
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAPERHR
Pa.h1
P/hr
A rate of change of pressure measured as the number of Pascals in a period of one hour.
 QUDT
Pascal per Hour
PascalPerHour
75
A 'Perceptual' which stands for a real world object whose spatiotemporal pattern makes it identifiable by an observer as a sound.
When we use the term 'sound' what are we referring to? The EMMO identifis a sound as the physical object that can be heard by the observer (more exactly, by the sensor of the observer).
In this sense, a sound (which is an acoustical object) is to be identified as the air region that manifests the sound wave and is able to be perceived by an observer. In case the wave is travelling through water or steel, then these other media regions are the sounds.
If the waveform is travelling through a cable as electronic signal (analog or digital) it is no more a sound, since it cannot be perceived by an observer as an acoustical object. This electrical waveform (or digital packet) is another physical that may stand for a sound if interpreted by a device (e.g. an amplifier, a DA converter).
'acoustical' refers to the perception mechanism of the observer that can occur through a microphone, a ear.
Sound
Auditory
Lifetime
From Middle English liftime, equivalent to life + time.
Sintering is the process of forming a solid mass of material through heat and pressure without melting to the point of liquefaction. This process involves the atoms in materials diffusing across the particle boundaries and fusing together into one piece.
Sintering occurs naturally in mineral deposits, and is used as a manufacturing process for materials including ceramics, metals and plastics.
Because the sintering temperature doesn’t reach the materials’ melting point, it is often used for materials with high melting points, such as molybdenum and tungsten.
ISO 3252:2019 Powder metallurgy
sintering: thermal treatment of a powder or compact, at a temperature below the melting point of the main constituent, for the purpose of increasing its strength by the metallurgical bonding of its particles
ISO/ASTM TR 52906:2022 Additive manufacturing
sintering: process of heating a powder metal compact to increase density and/or improve mechanical properties via solid state diffusion
https://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/faqs/whatissintering
Sintern
Sintering
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricPolarization
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1050425
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211137
67
At a given point within a domain of quasiinfinitesimal volume V, vector quantity equal to the electric dipole moment p of the substance contained within the domain divided by the volume V.
ElectricPolarization
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERC
N.C1
N/C
Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) is a unit in the category of Electric field strength. It is also known as newtons/coulomb. Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) has a dimension of MLT3I1 where M is mass, L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. It essentially the same as the corresponding standard SI unit V/m.
 QUDT
Newton per Coulomb
NewtonPerCoulomb
T+2 L5 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
The class of individuals that stand for muon elementary particles belonging to the second generation of leptons.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon
Muon
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularFrequency
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030703
https://dbpedia.org/page/Angular_frequency
318
Rate of change of the phase angle.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_frequency
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00352
AngularFrequency
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DoseEquivalentQualityFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2122099
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811403
1082
Factor taking into account health effects in the determination of the dose equivalent.
QualityFactor
A whole that is identified according to a criteria based on its spatial configuration that is satisfied throughout its time extension.
A continuant (here called object) is usually defined as a whole whose all possible temporal parts are always satisfying a specific criterion (wich is the classical definition of continuants).
However that's not possible in general, since we will finally end to temporal parts whose temporal extension is so small that the connectivity relations that define the object will no longer hold. That's the case when the temporal interval is lower than the interval that characterize the causality interactions between the object parts.
In other terms, if the time span of a temporal part is lower than the inverse of the frequency of interactions between the constituents, then the constituents in such temporal part are not connected. The object is no more an object, neither an item, but simply a collection of fundamental parts.
To overcome this issue, we can identify an minimum holistic temporal part (a lower time interval value), below which a specific definition for an object type does not hold anymore, that is called a fundamental.
Continuant
Endurant
Object
0.0
Atom subclass for nihonium.
NihoniumAtom
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERKiloGM
J.kg1
J/kg
J/kg
Joule Per Kilogram} (J/kg) is a unit in the category of Thermal heat capacity. It is also known as `joule/kilogram`, `joules per kilogram`. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. The unit has a dimension of L2T⁻² where L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Joule per Kilogram
JoulePerKilogram
1000.0
PowerDensityUnit
Atom subclass for xenon.
XenonAtom
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ParticlePositionVector
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105533324
127.1
Position vector of a particle.
ParticlePositionVector
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagnetomotiveForce
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1266982
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211160
637.3
Scalar line integral of the magnetic field strength along a closed path.
MagnetomotiveForce
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Resistivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q108193
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211204
644
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05316
Electric field strength divided by the current density.
Resistivity
ElectricResistivity
1.0
1.666667e05
T1 L0 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
RhodiumSymbol
kg
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q444656
1214
Describes the effect that changing the volume of a crystal lattice has on its vibrational properties, and, as a consequence, the effect that changing temperature has on the size or dynamics of the lattice.
GrueneisenParamter
Atom subclass for tellurium.
TelluriumAtom
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q77995997
638
NumberOfTurnsInAWinding
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalDiffusionRatio
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q96249433
940.1
ThermalDiffusionRatio
A molecule composed of more than one element type.
Nitric oxide (NO) or carbon dioxide (CO₂).
Heteronuclear
Ge
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
B51
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/L
L
l
A nonSI unit of volume defined as 1 cubic decimetre (dm3),
The litre (American spelling: `liter`; SI symbol l or L) is a nonSI metric system unit of volume equal to 1 `cubic decimetre` (dm³), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm³) or 1/1000 `cubic metre`. If the lower case "L" is used as the symbol, it is sometimes rendered as a cursive "l" to help distinguish it from the capital "I", although this usage has no official approval by any international bureau.
 QUDT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03594
Other used symbols for litre are "l" and "ℓ".
liter
Litre
A representation of objects belonging to the chemistry field.
ChemicalRepresentation
RheniumSymbol
SecondGenerationFermion
hasVariable
1.0
The chemical symbol of an atomic element.
hasChemicalSymbol
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SuperconductorEnergyGap
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106127898
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8151028
1237
Width of the forbidden energy band in a superconductor.
SuperconductorEnergyGap
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VSECPERM
V.s.m1
V⋅s/m
product of the SI derived unit volt and the SI base unit second divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Volt Second Per Metre
VoltSecondPerMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MeanFreePath
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q756307
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130637
938
in a given medium, average distance that particles of a specified type travel between successive interactions of a specified type.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03778
The mean free path may thus be specified either for all interactions, i.e. total mean free path, or for particular types of interaction such as scattering, capture, or ionization.
MeanFreePath
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Reluctance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q863390
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311228
639
Magnetic tension divided by magnetic flux.
Reluctance
MagneticReluctance
LengthPerAmountUnit
MagneticFluxUnit
T
3600.0
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/PermittivityOfVacuum
614.1
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04508
The DBpedia definition (http://dbpedia.org/page/Vacuum_permittivity) is outdated since May 20, 2019. It is now a measured constant.
The value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
PermittivityOfVacuum
VacuumElectricPermittivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2152581
1019.2
Radius of a sphere such that the relativistic electron energy is distributed uniformly.
ElectronRadius
1.0
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by shear stress.
DIN 8587:200309
Relates a SI prefixed unit to the multiplication factor corresponding to the prefix.
hasPrefixMultiplier
A temporal part that is an item.
hasTemporalItemSlice
URL for the entry in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV).
https://www.electropedia.org/
IEVReference
Superclass for all units prefixed with "exa" (1e18).
ExaPrefixedUnit
208.98243
A variable is a symbolic object that stands for any other mathematical object, such as number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, an element of a set.
x
k
Variable
0.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificHelmholtzEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76359554
521.4
Helmholtz energy per unit mass.
SpecificHelmholtzEnergy
Atom subclass for cobalt.
CobaltAtom
1.157407e11
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectronDensity
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=7050605
1229.1
Number of electrons in conduction band per volume.
ElectronDensity
PAL
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PA
Pa
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pascal
SI unit for pressure.
The SI unit of pressure. The pascal is the standard pressure unit in the MKS metric system, equal to one newton per square meter or one "kilogram per meter per second per second." The unit is named for Blaise Pascal (16231662), French philosopher and mathematician, who was the first person to use a barometer to measure differences in altitude.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal?oldid=492989202
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04442
Pascal
0.0
1e18
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERM
J.m1
J/m
J/m
Joule Per Metre
JoulePerMetre
An expression that provides information about the element types that constiture a molecule or a molecular substance and their number.
Hydrogen peroxide is H2O2
MolecularFormula
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliM
/mm
mm1
/mm
Per Millimeter Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /mm.
 QUDT
Reciprocal Millimetre
ReciprocalMilliMetre
1000.0
1e21
The superclass for all physical quantities classes that are categorized according to a standard (e.g. ISQ).
StandardizedPhysicalQuantity
0.01
T0 L0 M1 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M4
m4
m⁴
A unit associated with area moments of inertia.
 QUDT
Quartic Metre
QuarticMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NeutronYieldPerAbsorption
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99159075
1074.2
Average number of fission neutrons, both prompt and delayed, emitted per neutron absorbed in a fissionable nuclide or in a nuclear fuel, as specified.
NeutronYieldPerAbsorption
Language
From Latin lingua (“tongue, speech, language”), from Old Latin dingua (“tongue”).
T+2 L+1 M2 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
Atom subclass for einsteinium.
EinsteiniumAtom
DownQuarkType
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERKiloGMPA
mol.kg1.Pa1
mol/(kg⋅Pa)
Mole Per Kilogram Pascal (mol/kgpa) is a unit of Molar Mass variation due to Pressure.
 QUDT
Mole per Kilogram Pascal
MolePerKilogramPascal
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroW
uW
mW
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit watt
 QUDT
MicroWatt
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERMOL
C.mol1
C/mol
c/mol
(C/mol) is a unit in the category of Molar electric charge. It is also known as coulombs/mol. Coulomb Per Mol has a dimension of TN{1}I where T is time, N is amount of substance, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Coulomb per Mole
CoulombPerMole
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERM4
J.m4
J/m⁴
`Joule Per Quartic Meter` (J/m⁴) is a unit for the spectral concentration of radiant energy density (in terms of wavelength), or the spectral radiant energy density (in terms of wave length). This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system.
 QUDT
Joule per Quartic Metre
JoulePerQuarticMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Time
Onedimensional subspace of spacetime, which is locally orthogonal to space.
37
The indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06375
Time can be seen as the duration of an event or, more operationally, as "what clocks read".
Time
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98831218
1062.2
Number of ions per volume.
IonDensity
IonNumberDensity
A symbolic that has parts a numerical object and a reference expressing the value of a quantity (expressed as the product of the numerical and the unit).
6.8 m
0.9 km
8 K
6 MeV
43.5 HRC(150 kg)
quantity value
A quantity value is not necessarily a property, since it is possible to write "10 kg", without assigning this quantity to a specific object.
Following the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), EMMO distinguishes between a quantity (a property) and the quantity value (a numerical and a reference).
So, for the EMMO the symbol "kg" is not a physical quantity but simply a 'Symbolic' object categorized as a 'MeasurementUnit'.
While the string "1 kg" is a 'QuantityValue'.
QuantityValue
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
HafniumSymbol
1.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TONNEPERSEC
t.s1
t/s
unit tonne divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
Tonne Per Second
TonnePerSecond
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SlowingDownDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98915830
1067
Number of sloweddown particles per time and volume.
SlowingDownDensity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LinearStrain
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1990546
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130358
417.2
Relative change of length with respect the original length.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03560
RelativeLinearStrain
A semiotic relation connecting a decucing interpreter to the "deduced" semiotic object in a deduction process.
hasDeduced
isPartOf
NonCrystallineMaterial
AmorphousMaterial
A symbol that stands for a single unit.
Some examples are "Pa", "m" and "J".
UnitSymbol
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectromagneticWavePhaseSpeed
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q77990619
635.1
Angular frequency divided by angular wavenumber.
PhaseSpeedOfElectromagneticWaves
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PressureCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q74762732
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130429
54
Change of pressure per change of temperature at constant volume.
PressureCoefficient
57.29578
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NonLeakageProbability
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99415566
1077
Probability that a neutron will not escape from the reactor during the slowingdown process or while it diffuses as a thermal neutron.
NonLeakageProbability
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/FARADPERM
F.m1
F/m
F/m
Farad Per Meter (F/m) is a unit in the category of Electric permittivity. It is also known as farad/meter. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Farad Per Meter has a dimension of M1L3T4I2 where M is mass, L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Farad per Metre
FaradPerMetre
Data
From Latin data, nominative plural of datum (“that is given”), neuter past participle of dō (“I give”).
A particle with integer spin that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
A boson that is a single elementary particle.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boson#Elementary_bosons
FundamentalBoson
The UN/CEFACT Recommendation 20 provides three character alphabetic and alphanumeric codes for representing units of measurement for length, area, volume/capacity, mass (weight), time, and other quantities used in international trade. The codes are intended for use in manual and/or automated systems for the exchange of information between participants in international trade.
uneceCommonCode
AreaPerQuarticTimeUnit
Atom subclass for tin.
TinAtom
0.0
A numerical data value.
A number individual provides the link between the ontology and the actual data, through the data property hasNumericalValue.
A number is actually a string (e.g. 1.4, 1e8) of numerical digits and other symbols. However, in order not to increase complexity of the taxonomy and relations, here we take a number as an "atomic" object, without decomposit it in digits (i.e. we do not include digits in the EMMO as alphabet for numbers).
In math usually number and numeral are distinct concepts, the numeral being the symbol or a composition of symbols (e.g. 3.14, 010010, three) and the number is the idea behind it.
More than one numeral stands for the same number.
In the EMMO abstract entities do not exists, and numbers are simply defined by other numerals, so that a number is the class of all the numerals that are equivalent (e.g. 3 and 0011 are numerals that stands for the same number).
Or alternatively, an integer numeral may also stands for a set of a specific cardinality (e.g. 3 stands for a set of three apples). Rational and real numbers are simply a syntactic arrangment of integers (digits, in decimal system).
The fact that you can't give a name to a number without using a numeral or, in case of positive integers, without referring to a real world objects set with specific cardinality, suggests that the abstract concept of number is not a concept that can be practically used.
For these reasons, the EMMO will consider numerals and numbers as the same concept.
Numeral
Number
Every collection has at least two item members, since a collection of one item is a selfconnected entity (and then an item).
43
A class devoted to categorize causal objects by specifying their granularity levels.
A granularity level is specified by a tiling decomposition of the whole y. A tiling is identified as a set of items {x1, x2, ... xn} called tiles that:
 are proper parts of y
 covers the entire whole (y = x1 +x2 + ... + xn)
 do not overlap
 are part of one, and one only, whole (inverse functional)
Direct parthood is the antitransitive parthood relation used to build the class hierarchy (and the granularity hierarchy) for this perspective.
Reductionistic
Short enlightening explanation aimed to facilitate the user in drawing the connection (interpretation) between a OWL entity and the real world object(s) for which it stands.
An elucidation should address the real world entities using the concepts introduced by the conceptualisation annotation.
elucidation
VLT
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/V
V
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Volt
SI unit for electric potential difference.
The volt is the unit of electric potential difference—electric potential difference is also known as voltage. The size of 1 volt is officially defined as the potential difference between two points of a wire carrying a current of 1 ampere when the power dissipated in the wire is 1 watt.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volt?oldid=494812083
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06634
Volt
1.0
FermiumSymbol
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SECPERM
s.m1
s/m
Seconds per metre
SecondPerMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DebyeTemperature
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3517821
1211
DebyeTemperature
TemperaturePerSquareTimeUnit
T3 L+1 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
A collective term for the processes in which, during joining, the parts to be joined and any auxiliary parts are essentially only elastically deformed and unintentional loosening is prevented by frictional connection.
DIN 85933:200309
Matter of constant composition best characterized by the entities (molecules, formula units, atoms) it is composed of.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01039
A substance is always composed of more than one molecular entity. It lays in the continuum or mesoscopic domain.
ChemicalSubstance
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MomentOfInertia
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q165618
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130321
47
Scalar measure of the rotational inertia with respect to a fixed axis of rotation.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M04006
MomentOfIntertia
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassExcess
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1571163
1021.1
Difference between the mass of an atom, and the product of its mass number and the unified mass constant.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03719
MassExcess
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/EquilibriumPositionVectorOfIon
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105533477
127.2
In condensed matter physics, position vector of an atom or ion in equilibrium.
EquilibriumPositionVector
1.0
ElectricResistanceUnit
CeriumSymbol
A tessellation (or tiling) is the covering of a surface, often a plane, using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.
A causal object that is tessellated in direct parts.
Tiling
Tessellation
Ronna
A well formed tessellation with tiles that are all temporal.
TemporalTiling
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CM2
C.m2
C⋅m²
Coulomb Square Meter (Cm2) is a unit in the category of Electric quadrupole moment. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Square Meter (Cm2) has a dimension of L2TI where L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
Coulomb Square Metre
CoulombSquareMetre
Atom subclass for gallium.
GalliumAtom
17
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroMOL
umol
μmol
0.000001fold of the SI base unit mol
 QUDT
MicroMole
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMPERA
N.m.A1
N⋅m/A
product of the SI derived unit newton and the SI base unit metre divided by the SI base unit ampere
 QUDT
Newton Metre Per Ampere
NewtonMetrePerAmpere
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalInsulance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2596212
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130441
511
Reciprocal of the coefficient of heat transfer.
CoefficientOfThermalInsulance
ThermalInsulance
0.0
Derived quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
ISQDerivedQuantity
An object which is an holistic temporal part of a process.
A seminaked man is a status in the process of a man's dressing.
State
Status
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1478382
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130437
58
Vector quantity with magnitude equal to the heat flow rate dΦ through a surface element divided by the area dA of the element, and direction eφ in the direction of propagation of heat.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02755
At a fixed point in a medium, the direction of propagation of heat is opposite to the temperature gradient. At a point on the surface separating two media with different temperatures, the direction of propagation of heat is normal to the surface, from higher to lower temperatures.
AreicHeatFlowRate
DensityOfHeatFlowRate
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADPERSEC2
rad.s2
rad/s2
rad/s²
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity. In SI units, it is measured in radians per Square second (rad/s²), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter α.
 QUDT
Radian per Square Second
RadianPerSquareSecond
1.0
da
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassNumber
Number of nucleons in an atomic nucleus.
AtomicMassNumber
NucleonNumber
MassNumber
1000.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/V2PERK2
V2.K2
V²/K²
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
Square Volt per Square Kelvin
SquareVoltPerSquareKelvin
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassConcentrationOfWaterVapour
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76378808
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130460
Quotient of the mass of water vapour in moist gas by the total gas volume.
The mass concentration of water at saturation is denoted vsat.
MassConcentrationOfWaterVapour
T3 L3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
1000.0
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassieuFunction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3077625
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130426
522
Negative quotient of Helmholtz energy and temperature.
MassieuFunction
1.0
S
A physical particle with half odd integer spin (1/2, 3/2, etc...) that follows FermiDirac statistics.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermion
Fermion
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Coercivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q432635
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211269
631
Coercive field strength in a substance when either the magnetic flux density or the magnetic polarization and magnetization is brought from its value at magnetic saturation to zero by monotonic reduction of the applied magnetic field strength.
Coercivity
1.0
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERM
K.m1
K/m
A change of temperature on the Kelvin temperature scale in one SI unit of length.
 QUDT
KelvinPerMeter
KelvinPerMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/QualityFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q79467569
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1511545
653
Dimensionless quantity in electromagnetism.
QualityFactor
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M6
m⁶
Sextic Metre
SexticMetre
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ResonanceEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98165187
1037.2
Resonance in a nuclear reaction, determined by the kinetic energy of an incident particle in the reference frame of the target particle.
ResonanceEnergy
Atom subclass for arsenic.
ArsenicAtom
EnergyPerAmountUnit
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KiloGM2PERSEC2
kg2.s2
kg²/s²
Square Kilograms per square second
SquareKilogramPerSquareSecond
Thermal ablation is the separation of material particles in solid, liquid or gaseous state by heat processes as well as the removal of these material particles by mechanical or electromagnetic forces (from: DIN
DIN 650994:198911
The processing of a material aimed to transform its structure by means of any type of treatment, without involving relevant synthesis phenomena.
Has shaped bodies as input and output.
Manufacturing by changing the properties of the material of which a workpiece is made, which is done, among other things, by changes in the submicroscopic or atomic range, e.g. by diffusion of atoms, generation and movement of dislocations in the atomic lattice or chemical reactions, and where unavoidable changes in shape are not part of the essence of these processes.
esce workpiece
DIN 8580:2020
Stoffeigenschaft ändern
WorkPieceTreatment
MaterialTreatment
0.001
1e06
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERCentiM2
W.cm2
W/cm²
Watt Per Square Centimeter is a unit of heat flux or thermal flux, the rate of heat energy transfer through a given surface.
 QUDT
Watt per Square Centimetre
WattPerSquareCentiMetre
An uncharged vector boson that mediate the weak interaction.
Z bosons are their own antiparticles.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W_and_Z_bosons
NeutralWeakBoson
ZBoson
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERMIN
m3.min1
m³/min
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit minute
 QUDT
Cubic Metre Per Minute
CubicMetrePerMinute
EntropyPerMassUnit
A manufacturing in which the product is a solid body with a well defined geometrical shape made from shapeless original material parts, whose cohesion is created during the process.
DIN 8580:2020