Elementary Multiperspective Material Ontology (EMMO)
EMMO is a multidisciplinary effort to develop a standard representational framework (the ontology) based on current materials modelling knowledge, including physical sciences, analytical philosophy and information and communication technologies.
It provides the connection between the physical world, materials characterisation world and materials modelling world.
EMMO is released under a Creative Commons license Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0).
EMMO
F. A. Zaccarini, C. Masolo, E. Ghedini, and S. Borgo. From Causation (and Parthood) to Time: The Case of EMMO (2023) doi: 10.3233/FAIA231120
202403
20180503
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode
202403
CWA 17815, Materials characterisation  Terminology, metadata and classification. Led by EMMC. 2017. https://www.cencenelec.eu/media/CENCENELEC/CWAs/ICT/cwa17815.pdf
European Commission, DirectorateGeneral for Research and Innovation, Baas, A., What makes a material function?  Let me compute the ways  Modelling in H2020 LEITNMBP programme materials and nanotechnology projects Sixth version  Short version, Baas, A.(editor), Publications Office of the European Union, 2017, https://data.europa.eu/doi/10.2777/404734
Elementary Multiperspective Material Ontology (EMMO)
10.5281/zenodo.6528495
First release candidate for v1.0.0 of the toplevel ontology.
emmo
https://w3id.org/emmo
The EMMO should be reasoned in order to visualize all inferences and class hierarchy in Protege (ctrl+R hotkey). It is tested with both the HermiT (preferred) and HermiT reasoners.
1.0.0beta7
1.0.0rc1
https://github.com/emmorepo/EMMO/raw/master/doc/emmologo.png
emmo@emmc.eu
hasMeasurementUnit
A conventional semiotic relation that relates a physical quantity to its unit.
Length hasUnit only LengthUnit
hasMeasurementUnit
hasChemicalSymbol
The chemical symbol of an atomic element.
hasChemicalSymbol
The chemical symbol of an atomic element.
hasPart
All other mereology relations can be defined in FOL using hasPart as primitive.
The primitive relation that express the concept of an entity being part of another one.
hasPart
The primitive relation that express the concept of an entity being part of another one.
All other mereology relations can be defined in FOL using hasPart as primitive.
isConventionFor
The inverse relation of hasConvention.
isConventionFor
The inverse relation of hasConvention.
hasConvention
A semiotic relation that connects a declared semiotic object to a conventional sign in a declaration process.
hasConvention
A semiotic relation that connects a declared semiotic object to a conventional sign in a declaration process.
isSignFor
The inverse relation of hasSign.
isSignFor
The inverse relation of hasSign.
hasSign
A relation that connects the semiotic object to the sign in a semiotic process.
hasSign
A relation that connects the semiotic object to the sign in a semiotic process.
semiotical
The generic EMMO semiotical relation.
semiotical
The generic EMMO semiotical relation.
hasMultipleMembers
A sub collection realtion where the proper part is fully encompasses some of the members of the collection.
hasMultipleMembers
A sub collection realtion where the proper part is fully encompasses some of the members of the collection.
hasMembers
The relation between individuals representing a collection and one or more of its members.
A maximal part is a proper part that is not connected with the rest of the whole.
A proper part which is not connected with the rest of the whole.
hasMaximalPart
hasMembers
A proper part which is not connected with the rest of the whole.
The relation between individuals representing a collection and one or more of its members.
A maximal part is a proper part that is not connected with the rest of the whole.
isDirectCauseOf
A causal relation between the causing and the effected entities occurring without intermediaries.
Direct causality is a concept that capture the idea of contact between two entities, given the fact that there are no causal intermediaries between them. It requires that at least a quantum of the causing entity is direct cause of a quantum of the caused entity.
It does not exclude the possibility of indirect causal routes between proper parts of the two entities.
Direct cause is irreflexive.
isDirectCauseOf
Direct causality is a concept that capture the idea of contact between two entities, given the fact that there are no causal intermediaries between them. It requires that at least a quantum of the causing entity is direct cause of a quantum of the caused entity.
It does not exclude the possibility of indirect causal routes between proper parts of the two entities.
A causal relation between the causing and the effected entities occurring without intermediaries.
Direct cause is irreflexive.
Direct cause provides the edges for the transitive restriction of the direct acyclic causal graph whose nodes are the quantum entities.
isCauseOf
Each pair of causally connected entities is either in isDirectCauseOf or isIndirectCauseOf relation. The two are mutually exclusive.
The relation between an individuals x and y, that holds if and only if:
a) y having a part that is causing an effect on a part of x
b) y and x are nonoverlapping
We say that an entity causes another if there is a quantum part of the first that is in causal relation with a quantum parts of the second.
An entity cannot cause itself (causal loops are forbidden) or a part of itself. For this reasons causality between entities excludes reflexivity and prevents them to overlap.
John yesterday is the cause of John today, is an example of temporallike causality. The desk supporting my laptop is a spacelike causality.
isCauseOf
We say that an entity causes another if there is a quantum part of the first that is in causal relation with a quantum parts of the second.
An entity cannot cause itself (causal loops are forbidden) or a part of itself. For this reasons causality between entities excludes reflexivity and prevents them to overlap.
The relation between an individuals x and y, that holds if and only if:
a) y having a part that is causing an effect on a part of x
b) y and x are nonoverlapping
Each pair of causally connected entities is either in isDirectCauseOf or isIndirectCauseOf relation. The two are mutually exclusive.
It applies to both quantums and macroentities (entities made of more than one quantum). It is admissible for two entities to be one the cause of the other, excepts when they are both quantums.
The OWL 2 DL version of the EMMO introduces this object property as primitive causal relation. It refers to the macro causality relation mC(x,y), defined in the EMMO FOL version. While the EMMO FOL introduces the quantum causality relation C(x,y) as primitive, the OWL 2 DL version substantially simplifies the theory, neglecting these lower level relations that are well above DL expressivity.
isIndirectCauseOf
A causal relation between the effected and the causing entities with intermediaries.
An indirect cause is a relation between two entities that is mediated by a intermediate entity. In other words, there are no quantum parts of the causing entity that are direct cause of quantum parts of the caused entity.
isIndirectCauseOf
An indirect cause is a relation between two entities that is mediated by a intermediate entity. In other words, there are no quantum parts of the causing entity that are direct cause of quantum parts of the caused entity.
A causal relation between the effected and the causing entities with intermediaries.
hasSpatialPart
A proper part of a whole, whose parts always cover the full temporal extension of the whole within a spatial interval.
In EMMO FOL this is a defined property. In OWL temporal relations are primitive.
hasSpatialPart
A proper part of a whole, whose parts always cover the full temporal extension of the whole within a spatial interval.
In EMMO FOL this is a defined property. In OWL temporal relations are primitive.
hasNonTemporalPart
The part is not connected with the rest item or members with hasNext relation (or its inverse).
hasNonTemporalPart
The part is not connected with the rest item or members with hasNext relation (or its inverse).
causal
Causality in the EMMO is intended as physical causation and not counterfactual. Meaning that causality is an expression of actual physical interactions, and not of a counterfactual depence such as “I didn't water the flowers, hence, I'm the cause of their death”.
Causality is the fundamental concept describing how entities affect each other, and occurs before time and space relations.
Embracing a strong reductionistic view, causality originates at quantum entities level.
The superclass of all causal EMMO relations.
causal
Causality is the fundamental concept describing how entities affect each other, and occurs before time and space relations.
Embracing a strong reductionistic view, causality originates at quantum entities level.
The superclass of all causal EMMO relations.
Causality in the EMMO is intended as physical causation and not counterfactual. Meaning that causality is an expression of actual physical interactions, and not of a counterfactual depence such as “I didn't water the flowers, hence, I'm the cause of their death”.
Each pair of entities is either in isCauseOf or isNotCauseOf relation. The two are mutually exclusive.
EMMORelation
The class for all relations used by the EMMO.
EMMORelation
The class for all relations used by the EMMO.
isInputOf
isInputOf
properOverlaps
The relation between two entities that overlaps and neither of both is part of the other.
properOverlaps
The relation between two entities that overlaps and neither of both is part of the other.
hasInput
The input of a process.
hasInput
The input of a process.
hasPiece
A nonmaximal part is a proper part that is connected with the rest of the whole.
The relation between two individuals representing an entity and a nonmaximal proper part, meaning the the latter is connected with the rest of the whole.
hasNotMaximalPart
hasPiece
The relation between two individuals representing an entity and a nonmaximal proper part, meaning the the latter is connected with the rest of the whole.
A nonmaximal part is a proper part that is connected with the rest of the whole.
hasVariable
hasVariable
hasModelledProperty
Assigns a quantity to an object via a welldefined modelling procedure.
hasModelledProperty
Assigns a quantity to an object via a welldefined modelling procedure.
hasObjectiveProperty
Relates an object to a quantity describing a quantifiable property of the object obtained via a welldefined procedure.
hasObjectiveProperty
hasMetricPrefix
Relates a prefixed unit to its metric prefix part.
hasMetricPrefix
hasOutput
The outcome of a process.
The partial overlapping is required since the creating process is distinct with the process in which the output is used or consumed.
hasOutput
The outcome of a process.
The partial overlapping is required since the creating process is distinct with the process in which the output is used or consumed.
hasOutcome
The relation between a process and the entity that represents how things have turned out.
hasOutcome
The relation between a process and the entity that represents how things have turned out.
hasHolisticPart
The relation between the whole and a proper part of the whole that scale down to the point which it lose the characteristics of the whole and become something else.
An holistic part of water fluid is a water molecule.
hasHolisticPart
The relation between the whole and a proper part of the whole that scale down to the point which it lose the characteristics of the whole and become something else.
hasPortion
The relation between a object whole and its spatial part of the same type.
A volume of 1 cc of milk within a 1 litre can be considered still milk as a whole. If you scale down to a cluster of molecules, than the milk cannot be considered a fluid no more (and then no more a milk).
hasPortion
The relation between a object whole and its spatial part of the same type.
hasRedundantPart
RP(x, y) ≡ PP(x, y) ∧ ∃φ(φ(x) ∧ φ(y))
The superproperty of the all object property relations between a whole and its mereological parts of the same type.
A volume of water has redundand parts other volumes of water. All this volumes have holistic parts some water molecules.
hasRedundantPart
RP(x, y) ≡ PP(x, y) ∧ ∃φ(φ(x) ∧ φ(y))
The superproperty of the all object property relations between a whole and its mereological parts of the same type.
hasProperty
A semiotic relation that connects a semiotic object to a property in a declaration process.
hasProperty
A semiotic relation that connects a semiotic object to a property in a declaration process.
distinctOverlaps
distinctOverlaps
contacts
A spatial contact between two entities occurs when the two entities are in an interaction relation whose causal structure is a representation of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles (Feynman diagrams).
It means that if two entities are in contact, then there is at least a couple of elementary particles, one part of the first and one part of the second, interacting according to one of the fundamental interactions through virtual particles. This kind of connection is spacelike (i.e. interconnecting force carrier particle is offshelf).
Contacts between two entities exclude the possibility of other causal relations that are not included in a fundamental spacelike interaction.
An interaction that is the sum of direct causality relations between two entities that are interpretable as fundamental physical interactions.
Spatial contact is symmetric and irreflexive.
hasSpatialnteractionWith
An elementary electron is in contact with another elementary electron in a scattering process.
The laptop is in contact with the desk, since there is a doubledirectional causality.
contacts
A spatial contact between two entities occurs when the two entities are in an interaction relation whose causal structure is a representation of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles (Feynman diagrams).
It means that if two entities are in contact, then there is at least a couple of elementary particles, one part of the first and one part of the second, interacting according to one of the fundamental interactions through virtual particles. This kind of connection is spacelike (i.e. interconnecting force carrier particle is offshelf).
Contacts between two entities exclude the possibility of other causal relations that are not included in a fundamental spacelike interaction.
An interaction that is the sum of direct causality relations between two entities that are interpretable as fundamental physical interactions.
Spatial contact is symmetric and irreflexive.
The contact relation is not an ordering relation since is symmetric.
hasDeclarer
A semiotic relation connecting a conventional sign to the interpreter (declarer) in a declaration process.
hasDeclarer
A semiotic relation connecting a conventional sign to the interpreter (declarer) in a declaration process.
hasInterpreter
A relation connecting a sign to the interpreter in a semiotic process.
hasInterpreter
A relation connecting a sign to the interpreter in a semiotic process.
hasCollaborationWith
hasCollaborationWith
isSpatiallyRelatedWith
A relation jointly covered by Contact and InteractWith relations, which are mutually exclusive.
The relation between entities that express a mutual causation.
isSpatiallyRelatedWith
A relation jointly covered by Contact and InteractWith relations, which are mutually exclusive.
The relation between entities that express a mutual causation.
interactsWith
The relation between two causally reachable entities through a path of contacts relations (i.e. representing physical interactions).
alongsideOf
I'm interacting with another tennis player through a ball. Or, two people in a webconference are interacting using a mediator which is the network signal.
interactsWith
The relation between two causally reachable entities through a path of contacts relations (i.e. representing physical interactions).
overlaps
The relation between two individuals representing entities that share at least one of their parts.
overlaps
The relation between two individuals representing entities that share at least one of their parts.
isPartOf
The inverse relation of hasPart.
isPartOf
The inverse relation of hasPart.
isOvercrossedBy
The inverse relation for overcrosses.
isOvercrossedBy
The inverse relation for overcrosses.
hasHolisticTemporalPart
hasHolisticTemporalPart
hasTemporalPart
A relation that identify a proper item part of the whole, whose parts always cover the full spatial extension of the whole within a time interval.
A temporal part of an item cannot both cause and be caused by any other proper part of the item.
A temporal part is not constraint to be causally selfconnected, i.e. it can be either an item or a collection. We therefore introduce two subproperties in order to distinguish between both cases.
hasTemporalPart
A relation that identify a proper item part of the whole, whose parts always cover the full spatial extension of the whole within a time interval.
A temporal part of an item cannot both cause and be caused by any other proper part of the item.
A temporal part is not constraint to be causally selfconnected, i.e. it can be either an item or a collection. We therefore introduce two subproperties in order to distinguish between both cases.
In EMMO FOL this is a defined property. In OWL temporal relations are primitive.
hasQuantity
Relates the result of a semiotic process to ont of its optained quantities.
hasQuantity
Relates the result of a semiotic process to ont of its optained quantities.
isOutputOf
isOutputOf
disappearsInto
disappearsInto
isDescriptionFor
The inverse relation of hasDescription.
isDescriptionFor
The inverse relation of hasDescription.
hasDescription
A semiotic relation that connects a declared semiotic object to a description in a declaration process.
hasDescription
A semiotic relation that connects a declared semiotic object to a description in a declaration process.
isAddedTo
isAddedTo
hasInterpretant
A relation that connects a semiotic object to the interpretant in a semiotic process.
hasInterpretant
A relation that connects a semiotic object to the interpretant in a semiotic process.
hasProductOutput
hasProductOutput
hasDatum
Relates a dataset to its datum.
hasDatum
Relates a dataset to its datum.
hasReferencePart
Relates a quantity to its reference unit through spatial direct parthood.
hasReferencePart
Relates a quantity to its reference unit through spatial direct parthood.
hasTask
hasTask
hasBehaviour
hasBehaviour
hasDistinctPart
DP(x, y) ≡ PP(x, y) ∧ ∃φ[φ(x) ↔ ¬φ(y)]
The superproperty of all object property relations between an entity and one of its proper parts that belongs to different taxonomical branch.
A molecule is a distinct part of a fluid.
hasDistinctPart
DP(x, y) ≡ PP(x, y) ∧ ∃φ[φ(x) ↔ ¬φ(y)]
The superproperty of all object property relations between an entity and one of its proper parts that belongs to different taxonomical branch.
hasScalarData
Relates an array to the scalar data of its basic elements.
hasScalarData
Relates an array to the scalar data of its basic elements.
hasSubObject
hasSubObject
hasManufacturedOutput
hasManufacturedOutput
hasIcon
A semiotic relation that connects a recognised semiotic object to an icon in a cognition process.
hasIcon
A semiotic relation that connects a recognised semiotic object to an icon in a cognition process.
notOverlaps
The relation between individuals representing nonoverlapping entities (i.e. that have no parts in common).
notOverlaps
The relation between individuals representing nonoverlapping entities (i.e. that have no parts in common).
mereological
The EMMO adheres to Atomistic General Extensional Mereology (AGEM).
The superclass of all mereological EMMO relations.
mereological
The superclass of all mereological EMMO relations.
The EMMO adheres to Atomistic General Extensional Mereology (AGEM).
emergesFrom
emergesFrom
overcrosses
The relation between an entity that overlaps another without being its part.
overcrosses
The relation between an entity that overlaps another without being its part.
hasDeduced
A semiotic relation connecting a decucing interpreter to the "deduced" semiotic object in a deduction process.
hasDeduced
A semiotic relation connecting a decucing interpreter to the "deduced" semiotic object in a deduction process.
hasReferent
A relation that connects the interpreter to the semiotic object in a semiotic process.
hasSemioticObject
hasReferent
A relation that connects the interpreter to the semiotic object in a semiotic process.
hasHolisticSpatialPart
hasHolisticSpatialPart
hasServiceOutput
hasServiceOutput
hasUnitNonPrefixPart
Relates a prefixed unit to its nonprefixed part.
For example the unit CentiNewtonMetre has prefix "Centi" and nonprefix part "NewtonMetre".
hasUnitNonPrefixPart
Relates a prefixed unit to its nonprefixed part.
equalsTo
Equality is here defined following a mereological approach.
The relation between two individuals representing the same entity.
equalsTo
The relation between two individuals representing the same entity.
Equality is here defined following a mereological approach.
hasAgent
The relation within a process and an agengt participant.
hasAgent
The relation within a process and an agengt participant.
hasJunctionPart
The part is connected with the rest item or members with hasNext (or its inverse) and hasContact relations only.
hasSpatioTemporalPart
hasJunctionPart
The part is connected with the rest item or members with hasNext (or its inverse) and hasContact relations only.
hasQualifiedPart
hasQualifiedPart
hasEndTask
hasEndTask
hasParticipant
Participation is a parthood relation: you must be part of the process to contribute to it. A participant whose 4D extension is totally contained within the process.
Participation is not under direct parthood since a process is not strictly related to reductionism, but it's a way to categorize temporal regions by the interpreters.
The relation between a process and an object participating to it, i.e. that is relevant to the process itself.
hasParticipant
The relation between a process and an object participating to it, i.e. that is relevant to the process itself.
hasCogniser
A semiotic relation connecting an icon to a interpreter (cogniser) in a cognision process.
hasCogniser
A semiotic relation connecting an icon to a interpreter (cogniser) in a cognision process.
hasFragment
The relation between two individuals representing a collection and a nonmaximal proper part, meaning the the latter is connected with the rest of the whole.
hasFragment
The relation between two individuals representing a collection and a nonmaximal proper part, meaning the the latter is connected with the rest of the whole.
isNotCauseOf
x isNotCauseOf y iff not(x isCauseOf y)
isNotCauseOf
x isNotCauseOf y iff not(x isCauseOf y)
participatesTo
The relation between a process P and an object whole O that overcrosses it. The intersection between P and O is a participant of P.
participatesTo
The relation between a process P and an object whole O that overcrosses it. The intersection between P and O is a participant of P.
hasConstitutiveProcess
hasConstitutiveProcess
hasStage
hasStage
hasConstituent
The relation between an object and one of its holistic part that contributes to the object under some spatialbased criteria.
hasConstituent
The relation between an object and one of its holistic part that contributes to the object under some spatialbased criteria.
contributesTo
contributesTo
qualifiedOverlaps
qualifiedOverlaps
hasMetrologicalUncertainty
Assigns a quantifiable uncertainty to an objective property through a welldefined procecure.
Since measurement uncertainty is a subclass of objective property, this relation can also describe the uncertainty of an measurement uncertainty.
hasMetrologicalUncertainty
Assigns a quantifiable uncertainty to an objective property through a welldefined procecure.
Since measurement uncertainty is a subclass of objective property, this relation can also describe the uncertainty of an measurement uncertainty.
hasCharacterised
hasCharacterised
hasDeclared
A semiotic relation connecting a declaring interpreter to the "declared" semiotic object in a declaration process.
hasDeclared
A semiotic relation connecting a declaring interpreter to the "declared" semiotic object in a declaration process.
hasStatus
hasStatus
hasComponent
hasComponent
hasBeginTask
hasBeginTask
hasModel
hasModel
hasUnitSymbol
Relates a prefixed unit to its unit symbol part.
hasUnitSymbol
Relates a prefixed unit to its unit symbol part.
hasCognised
A semiotic relation connecting a recognising interpreter to the "cognised" semiotic object in a cognition process.
hasCognised
A semiotic relation connecting a recognising interpreter to the "cognised" semiotic object in a cognition process.
partakesIn
partakesIn
holisticOverlaps
A relation between two holistic wholes that properly overlap, sharing one of their holistic parts.
This relation is about two wholes that overlap, and whose intersection is an holistic part of both.
A man and the process of building a house.
The man is a whole that possesses an holistic temporal part which is an interval of six monts and represents a working period in his lifetime.
The process of building a house is a whole that possesses an holistic spatial part which is a builder.
The working period of the man and the builder participating the building process are the same individual, belonging both to a man lifetime and to a building holistic views.
In this sense, the man and the building process overcrosses. and the overlapping individual is represented differently in both holistic views.
holisticOverlaps
A relation between two holistic wholes that properly overlap, sharing one of their holistic parts.
This relation is about two wholes that overlap, and whose intersection is an holistic part of both.
isRemovedFrom
isRemovedFrom
hasResourceIdentifier
Relates a resource to its identifier.
hasResourceIdentifier
Relates a resource to its identifier.
hasInterval
The relation between a process whole and a temporal part of the same type.
hasInterval
The relation between a process whole and a temporal part of the same type.
hasIndex
A semiotic relation that connects a deduced semiotic object to an indexin a deduction process.
hasIndex
A semiotic relation that connects a deduced semiotic object to an indexin a deduction process.
hasDeducer
A semiotic relation connecting an index sign to the interpreter (deducer) in a deduction process.
hasDeducer
A semiotic relation connecting an index sign to the interpreter (deducer) in a deduction process.
hasDatum
Relates a dataset to its datum.
hasDatum
Relates a dataset to its datum.
hasCharacteriser
hasCharacteriser
hasSubProcess
The relation between a process and one of its process parts.
hasSubProcess
The relation between a process and one of its process parts.
hasDimension
A semiotic relation that relates a datum to its dimension.
hasDimension
A semiotic relation that relates a datum to its dimension.
hasMeasuredProperty
Assigns a quantity to an object via a welldefined measurement procedure.
hasMeasuredProperty
Assigns a quantity to an object via a welldefined measurement procedure.
affects
affects
hasConventionalProperty
An object can be represented by a quantity for the fact that it has been recognized to belong to a specific class.
The quantity is selected without an observation aimed to measure its actual value, but by convention.
Assigns a quantity to an object by convention.
An Hydrogen atom has the quantity atomic number Z = 1 as its conventional property.
hasConventionalProperty
Assigns a quantity to an object by convention.
hasSymbolValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO symbol data entity.
hasSymbolValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO symbol data entity.
hasDimensionString
Relates a SI dimensional unit to a dimension string.
hasDimensionString
Relates a SI dimensional unit to a dimension string.
hasIUPAC2016AtomicMass
This is a convenient shortcut for the measurement process process of the atomic mass reported by IUPAC2016.
The mass of an atomic element according to IUPAC 2016.
hasIUPAC2016AtomicMass
The mass of an atomic element according to IUPAC 2016.
hasAtomicNumber
This is a convenient shortcut for the conventional declaration process of assigning an atomic number to an atom subclass.
The atomic number of an atomic element.
hasAtomicNumber
The atomic number of an atomic element.
hasSIConversionOffset
Conversion formula:
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
Number to add to a SI coherent unit when converting to a given nonSI coherent unit.
hasSIConversionOffset
Number to add to a SI coherent unit when converting to a given nonSI coherent unit.
Conversion formula:
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
hasSIConversionMultiplier
Conversion formula:
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
Number to multiply a SI coherent unit with when converting to a given nonSI coherent unit.
hasSIConversionMultiplier
Number to multiply a SI coherent unit with when converting to a given nonSI coherent unit.
Conversion formula:
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
hasDataValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO data entity.
This is the superproperty of all data properties used to serialise a fundamental data type in the EMMO Data perspective. An entity can have only one data value expressing its serialisation (e.g. a Real entity cannot have two different real values).
hasDataValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO data entity.
This is the superproperty of all data properties used to serialise a fundamental data type in the EMMO Data perspective. An entity can have only one data value expressing its serialisation (e.g. a Real entity cannot have two different real values).
hasPrefixMultiplier
Relates a SI prefixed unit to the multiplication factor corresponding to the prefix.
hasPrefixMultiplier
Relates a SI prefixed unit to the multiplication factor corresponding to the prefix.
hasNumberValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO numerical data entity.
hasNumberValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO numerical data entity.
hasURNValue
hasURNValue
hasURIValue
hasURIValue
hasStringValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO string data entity.
hasStringValue
The owl:dataProperty that provides a serialisation of an EMMO string data entity.
hasPrefixSymbol
Relates a SI prefixed unit to the prefix symbol.
true
hasPrefixSymbol
Relates a SI prefixed unit to the prefix symbol.
hasURLValue
hasURLValue
definition
A definition univocally determines a OWL entity using necessary and sufficient conditions referring to other OWL entities.
Precise and univocal description of an ontological entity in the framework of an axiomatic system.
definition
Precise and univocal description of an ontological entity in the framework of an axiomatic system.
A definition univocally determines a OWL entity using necessary and sufficient conditions referring to other OWL entities.
conceptualisation
A conceptualisation is the preliminary step behind each theory, preceding each logical formalisation. The readers approaching an ontology entity should first read the conceptualisation annotation to clearly understand "what we are talking about" and the accompanying terminology, and then read the elucidation.
The conceptualisation annotation is a comment that helps the reader to understand how the world has been conceptualised by the ontology authors.
conceptualisation
The conceptualisation annotation is a comment that helps the reader to understand how the world has been conceptualised by the ontology authors.
A conceptualisation is the preliminary step behind each theory, preceding each logical formalisation. The readers approaching an ontology entity should first read the conceptualisation annotation to clearly understand "what we are talking about" and the accompanying terminology, and then read the elucidation.
An elucidation can provide references to external knowledge sources (i.e. ISO, Goldbook, RoMM).
wikidataReference
URL corresponding to entry in Wikidata.
https://www.wikidata.org/
wikidataReference
URL corresponding to entry in Wikidata.
smileReference
OpenSMILE representation of a molecular structure.
OpenSMILES is an open specification of the SMILE language for specifying molecular structures, which has become a defacto standard for exchange of molecular structures.
http://opensmiles.org/opensmiles.html
smileReference
OpenSMILE representation of a molecular structure.
OpenSMILES is an open specification of the SMILE language for specifying molecular structures, which has become a defacto standard for exchange of molecular structures.
elucidation
An elucidation should address the real world entities using the concepts introduced by the conceptualisation annotation.
Short enlightening explanation aimed to facilitate the user in drawing the connection (interpretation) between a OWL entity and the real world object(s) for which it stands.
elucidation
Short enlightening explanation aimed to facilitate the user in drawing the connection (interpretation) between a OWL entity and the real world object(s) for which it stands.
An elucidation should address the real world entities using the concepts introduced by the conceptualisation annotation.
inchiKey
A hash of the full International Chemical Identifier (InChi) for a chemical substance.
The InChiKey is a hash of the full InChi identifier using the SHA256 algorithm, designed to allow for easy web searches of chemical compounds.
https://inchi.info/inchikey_overview_en.html
inchiKey
A hash of the full International Chemical Identifier (InChi) for a chemical substance.
The InChiKey is a hash of the full InChi identifier using the SHA256 algorithm, designed to allow for easy web searches of chemical compounds.
comment
A comment can be addressed to facilitate interpretation, to suggest possible usage, to clarify the concepts behind each entity with respect to other ontological apporaches.
A text that add some information about the entity.
comment
A text that add some information about the entity.
A comment can be addressed to facilitate interpretation, to suggest possible usage, to clarify the concepts behind each entity with respect to other ontological apporaches.
unitSymbol
A unit symbol may be a symbolic construct (e.g. km) or a symbol (e.g. m).
The standard symbol for a unit.
unitSymbol
The standard symbol for a unit.
A unit symbol may be a symbolic construct (e.g. km) or a symbol (e.g. m).
illustration
A link to a graphical representation aimed to facilitate understanding of the concept, or of an annotation.
illustration
A link to a graphical representation aimed to facilitate understanding of the concept, or of an annotation.
ucumCode
The Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) is a code system intended to include all units of measures being contemporarily used in international science, engineering, and business. The purpose is to facilitate unambiguous electronic communication of quantities together with their units.
Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM).
https://ucum.org/
ucumCode
Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM).
The Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM) is a code system intended to include all units of measures being contemporarily used in international science, engineering, and business. The purpose is to facilitate unambiguous electronic communication of quantities together with their units.
metrologicalReference
metrologicalReference
ISO14040Reference
ISO14040Reference
VIMTerm
The term in the International vocabulary of metrology (VIM) (JCGM 200:2008) that corresponds to the annotated term in EMMO.
https://www.bipm.org/documents/20126/2071204/JCGM_200_2012.pdf
quantity value (term in VIM that corresponds to Quantity in EMMO)
VIMTerm
The term in the International vocabulary of metrology (VIM) (JCGM 200:2008) that corresponds to the annotated term in EMMO.
uneceCommonCode
The UN/CEFACT Recommendation 20 provides three character alphabetic and alphanumeric codes for representing units of measurement for length, area, volume/capacity, mass (weight), time, and other quantities used in international trade. The codes are intended for use in manual and/or automated systems for the exchange of information between participants in international trade.
uneceCommonCode
The UN/CEFACT Recommendation 20 provides three character alphabetic and alphanumeric codes for representing units of measurement for length, area, volume/capacity, mass (weight), time, and other quantities used in international trade. The codes are intended for use in manual and/or automated systems for the exchange of information between participants in international trade.
contact
A person or organisation acting as a contact point for enquiries about the ontology resource
The annotation should include an email address.
contact
A person or organisation acting as a contact point for enquiries about the ontology resource
The annotation should include an email address.
omReference
IRI to corresponding concept in the Ontology of units of Measure.
https://enterpriseintegrationlab.github.io/icity/OM/doc/indexen.html
https://github.com/HajoRijgersberg/OM
omReference
IRI to corresponding concept in the Ontology of units of Measure.
qudtReference
URL to corresponing entity in QUDT.
http://www.qudt.org/2.1/catalog/qudtcatalog.html
qudtReference
URL to corresponing entity in QUDT.
OWLDLRestrictedAxiom
Axiom not included in the theory because of OWL 2 DL global restrictions for decidability.
OWLDLRestrictedAxiom
Axiom not included in the theory because of OWL 2 DL global restrictions for decidability.
Will be removed with 1.0.0 release due to duplicated scope of emmo:example with respect to skos:example
true
wikipediaReference
URL to corresponding Wikipedia entry.
https://www.wikipedia.org/
wikipediaReference
URL to corresponding Wikipedia entry.
etymology
Definitions are usually taken from Wiktionary.
The etymology annotation explains the origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.
etymology
The etymology annotation explains the origin of a word and the historical development of its meaning.
Definitions are usually taken from Wiktionary.
The etymology annotation is usually applied to rdfs:label entities, to better understand the connection between a label and the concept it concisely represents.
ISO9000Reference
ISO9000Reference
iupacReference
DOI to corresponding concept in IUPAC
https://goldbook.iupac.org/
iupacReference
dbpediaReference
URL to corresponding dpbedia entry.
https://wiki.dbpedia.org/
dbpediaReference
URL to corresponding dpbedia entry.
ISO80000Reference
Corresponding item number in ISO 80 000.
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:80000:1:ed1:v1:en
31.1 (ISO80000 reference to length)
ISO80000Reference
Corresponding item number in ISO 80 000.
IEVReference
URL for the entry in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV).
https://www.electropedia.org/
IEVReference
URL for the entry in the International Electrotechnical Vocabulary (IEV).
VolumeFlowRate
Quantity equal to the volume dV of substance crossing a given surface during a time interval with infinitesimal duration dt, divided by this duration, thus qV = dV / dt
VolumetricFlowRate
VolumeFlowRate
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/VolumeFlowRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1134348
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130372
431
Quantity equal to the volume dV of substance crossing a given surface during a time interval with infinitesimal duration dt, divided by this duration, thus qV = dV / dt
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volumetric_flow_rate
ISQDerivedQuantity
Derived quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
ISQDerivedQuantity
Derived quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
MechanicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800004.
MechanicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800004.
MolarConductivity
Conductivity per molar concentration of electrolyte.
MolarConductivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarConductivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1943278
945
Conductivity per molar concentration of electrolyte.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03976
PhysioChemicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800009.
PhysioChemicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800009.
Yb
YtterbiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the ytterbium atom.
YtterbiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the ytterbium atom.
NCNameData
NCNameData
ChemicalElement
The IUPAC Gold Book defines the a chemical element both as:
 a species of atoms; all atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus
 a pure chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus
This qualifies a chemical element as a name and not a matter obejct that can stand for an atom or a substance.
The symbol for a specific chemical element, that can stand both for an atom or a substance.
http://publications.iupac.org/ci/2005/2701/ud.html
ChemicalElement
The symbol for a specific chemical element, that can stand both for an atom or a substance.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01022
StringData
Since a string is a simple type that can contain only characters but not other child elements, is often not suitable for representing human text, that may need additional elements for control of aspects such as bidirectional formatting or ruby annotation.
Symbolic data that consist of a sequence of characters.
https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema112/#string
StringData
Symbolic data that consist of a sequence of characters.
Since a string is a simple type that can contain only characters but not other child elements, is often not suitable for representing human text, that may need additional elements for control of aspects such as bidirectional formatting or ruby annotation.
NameData
NameData
NormalizedStringData
NormalizedStringData
LanguageData
LanguageData
TokenData
TokenData
GrowingCrystal
GrowingCrystal
FormingFromLiquid
FormingFromLiquid
132.90545196
55
CaesiumAtom
Atom subclass for caesium.
CaesiumAtom
Atom subclass for caesium.
SemioticObject
Here is assumed that the concept of 'object' is always relative to a 'semiotic' process. An 'object' does not exists per se, but it's always part of an interpretation.
The EMMO relies on strong reductionism, i.e. everything real is a formless collection of elementary particles: we give a meaning to real world entities only by giving them boundaries and defining them using 'sign's.
In this way the 'sign'ed entity becomes an 'object', and the 'object' is the basic entity needed in order to apply a logical formalism to the real world entities (i.e. we can speak of it through its sign, and use logics on it through its sign).
The object, in Peirce semiotics, as participant to a semiotic process.
Object
SemioticObject
The object, in Peirce semiotics, as participant to a semiotic process.
Atom
A standalone atom has direct part one 'nucleus' and one 'electron_cloud'.
An O 'atom' within an O₂ 'molecule' is an 'ebonded_atom'.
In this material branch, H atom is a particular case, with respect to higher atomic number atoms, since as soon as it shares its electron it has no nucleus entangled electron cloud.
We cannot say that H₂ molecule has direct part two H atoms, but has direct part two H nucleus.
An 'atom' is a 'nucleus' surrounded by an 'electron_cloud', i.e. a quantum system made of one or more bounded electrons.
ChemicalElement
Atom
A standalone atom has direct part one 'nucleus' and one 'electron_cloud'.
An O 'atom' within an O₂ 'molecule' is an 'ebonded_atom'.
In this material branch, H atom is a particular case, with respect to higher atomic number atoms, since as soon as it shares its electron it has no nucleus entangled electron cloud.
We cannot say that H₂ molecule has direct part two H atoms, but has direct part two H nucleus.
An 'atom' is a 'nucleus' surrounded by an 'electron_cloud', i.e. a quantum system made of one or more bounded electrons.
PhysicalObject
It is natural to define entities made or more than one smaller parts as object according to some unity criteria. One of the most general one applicable to causal interacting systems is to ask that all the quantum parts of the system are part of elementaries whose paths start and end within the entitiy. We call this causal convexity. In other words, causal convexity excludes all quantums that leave the system (no more interacting), or that are not yet part of it (not yet interacting).
So, a photon leaving a body is not part of a convex system, while a real photon that is the carrier of clasical electromagnetic interaction between two molecular parts of the body, is part of the convex body.
A physical phenomenon is defined as a causally nonconvex interacting system, complement of causally convex interacting system.
The class of individuals standing for causally convex interacting systems.
PhysicalObject
It is natural to define entities made or more than one smaller parts as object according to some unity criteria. One of the most general one applicable to causal interacting systems is to ask that all the quantum parts of the system are part of elementaries whose paths start and end within the entitiy. We call this causal convexity. In other words, causal convexity excludes all quantums that leave the system (no more interacting), or that are not yet part of it (not yet interacting).
So, a photon leaving a body is not part of a convex system, while a real photon that is the carrier of clasical electromagnetic interaction between two molecular parts of the body, is part of the convex body.
A physical phenomenon is defined as a causally nonconvex interacting system, complement of causally convex interacting system.
The class of individuals standing for causally convex interacting systems.
InteractingSystem
A causally bonded system is a system in which there are at least thwo causal paths that are interacting.
InteractingSystem
A causally bonded system is a system in which there are at least thwo causal paths that are interacting.
0.0
0.0002777778
MetrePerHour
Metre per hour is a metric unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (Vector (geometry)). Its symbol is m/h or mu00b7h1 (not to be confused with the imperial unit symbol mph. By definition, an object travelling at a speed of 1 m/h for an hour would move 1 metre.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Metre per Hour
MetrePerHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MPERHR
m.h1
m/h
m/h
Metre per hour is a metric unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (Vector (geometry)). Its symbol is m/h or mu00b7h1 (not to be confused with the imperial unit symbol mph. By definition, an object travelling at a speed of 1 m/h for an hour would move 1 metre.
 QUDT
T1 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SpeedUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Speed'.
SpeedUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Speed'.
SIAcceptedDerivedUnit
Defived units that are accepted to be used with SI.
SIAcceptedDerivedUnit
Defived units that are accepted to be used with SI.
SquareMetreQuarticHertz
Square metre and quartic Hertz.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquareMetreQuarticHertz
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2HZ4
m2.Hz4
m²⋅Hz⁴
Square metre and quartic Hertz.
SICoherentDerivedUnit
A SI derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of SI base units is one.
This class collects all units that are products or powers of SI base or SI special units only.
m/s
kg/m^3
SICoherentDerivedUnit
A SI derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of SI base units is one.
T4 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaPerQuarticTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerQuarticTime'.
AreaPerQuarticTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerQuarticTime'.
14.007
7
NitrogenAtom
Atom subclass for nitrogen.
NitrogenAtom
Atom subclass for nitrogen.
Hardening
Heat treatment process that generally produces martensite in the matrix.
Hardening
Heat treatment process that generally produces martensite in the matrix.
HeatTreatment
Heat to a temperature appropriate for the particular material, maintain at that temperature and then cool at an appropriate rate to reduce hardness, improve machinability or achieve desired properties.
wärmebehandeln
HeatTreatment
Heat to a temperature appropriate for the particular material, maintain at that temperature and then cool at an appropriate rate to reduce hardness, improve machinability or achieve desired properties.
DynamicViscosity
The measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow when an external force is applied.
Viscosity
DynamicViscosity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DynamicViscosity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q15152757
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130334
424
The measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow when an external force is applied.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01877
CouplingFactor
Ratio of the absolute value of the mutual permeance related to two circuit elements to the geometric average of their selfpermeances.
InductiveCouplingFactor
CouplingFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q78101715
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311241
642.1
Ratio of the absolute value of the mutual permeance related to two circuit elements to the geometric average of their selfpermeances.
ISQDimensionlessQuantity
A quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned and with a corresponding unit of measurement in the SI of the unit one.
ISQDimensionlessQuantity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Dimensionless
A quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned and with a corresponding unit of measurement in the SI of the unit one.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dimensionless_quantity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01742
ElectromagneticQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800006.
ElectromagneticQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800006.
Velocity
The velocity depends on the choice of the reference frame. Proper transformation between frames must be used: Galilean for nonrelativistic description, Lorentzian for relativistic description.
 IEC, note 2
The velocity is related to a point described by its position vector. The point may localize a particle, or be attached to any other object such as a body or a wave.
 IEC, note 1
Vector quantity giving the rate of change of a position vector.
 ISO 800003
Velocity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Velocity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q11465
38.1
3‑10.1
Vector quantity giving the rate of change of a position vector.
 ISO 800003
Vector
1dimensional array who's spatial direct parts are numbers.
LinearArray
1DArray
Vector
1dimensional array who's spatial direct parts are numbers.
Intensive
A quantity whose magnitude is independent of the size of the system.
Note that not all physical quantities can be categorised as being either intensive or extensive. For example the square root of the mass.
Temperature
Density
Pressure
ChemicalPotential
Intensive
A quantity whose magnitude is independent of the size of the system.
Information
Information is encoded data with a meaning (semiotic sign).
Information
Information is encoded data with a meaning (semiotic sign).
SpaceAndTimeQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800003.
SpaceAndTimeQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800003.
Speed
Length per unit time.
Speed in the absolute value of the velocity.
Speed
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Speed
38.2
Length per unit time.
Speed in the absolute value of the velocity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05852
AtomicMass
Since the nucleus account for nearly all of the total mass of atoms (with the electrons and nuclear binding energy making minor contributions), the atomic mass measured in Da has nearly the same value as the mass number.
The atomic mass is often expressed as an average of the commonly found isotopes.
The mass of an atom in the ground state.
AtomicMass
The mass of an atom in the ground state.
104.1
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00496
Mass
Property of a physical body that express its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a force is applied.
Mass
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Mass
41
Property of a physical body that express its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a force is applied.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03709
T1 L0 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PerTimeMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTimeMass'.
PerTimeMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTimeMass'.
SIDimensionalUnit
Dimensional unit with its physical dimensionality described accortind to the International System of Units (SI).
In SI are the physical dimensions of the base quantities time (T), length (L), mass (M), electric current (I), thermodynamic temperature (Θ), amount of substance (N) and luminous intensity (J).
In general the dimension of any quantity Q is written in the form of a dimensional product,
dim Q = T^α L^β M^γ I^δ Θ^ε N^ζ J^η
where the exponents α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η, which are generally small integers, which can be positive, negative, or zero, are called the dimensional exponents.
 SI brouchure
The SI dimensional units are equivalent to dimensional strings that uniquely defines their dimensionality by specifying the values of the coefficients α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η. A dimensional string is a spaceseparated string of the physical dimension symbols followed by the value of the exponent (including it sign). They should always match the following regular expression:
^T([+][19]0) L([+][19]0) M([+][19]0) I([+][19]0) Θ([+][19]0) N([+][19]0) J([+][19]0)$
Examples of correspondance between dimensional units and their dimensional units are:
 AmountOfSubstanceUnit <=> "T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0"
 TimeUnit <=> "T+1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0"
 ElectricCurrentDensityUnit <=> "T0 L2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0"
SIDimensionalUnit
Dimensional unit with its physical dimensionality described accortind to the International System of Units (SI).
The class of units with dimensionality 'SIDimensional'.
In SI are the physical dimensions of the base quantities time (T), length (L), mass (M), electric current (I), thermodynamic temperature (Θ), amount of substance (N) and luminous intensity (J).
In general the dimension of any quantity Q is written in the form of a dimensional product,
dim Q = T^α L^β M^γ I^δ Θ^ε N^ζ J^η
where the exponents α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η, which are generally small integers, which can be positive, negative, or zero, are called the dimensional exponents.
 SI brouchure
The SI dimensional units are equivalent to dimensional strings that uniquely defines their dimensionality by specifying the values of the coefficients α, β, γ, δ, ε, ζ and η. A dimensional string is a spaceseparated string of the physical dimension symbols followed by the value of the exponent (including it sign). They should always match the following regular expression:
^T([+][19]0) L([+][19]0) M([+][19]0) I([+][19]0) Θ([+][19]0) N([+][19]0) J([+][19]0)$
Examples of correspondance between dimensional units and their dimensional units are:
 AmountOfSubstanceUnit <=> "T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0"
 TimeUnit <=> "T+1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0"
 ElectricCurrentDensityUnit <=> "T0 L2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0"
ha
0.0
10000.0
Hectare
A nonSI metric unit of area defined as the square with 100metre sides.
The customary metric unit of land area, equal to 100 ares. One hectare is a square hectometer, that is, the area of a square 100 meters on each side: exactly 10 000 square meters or approximately 107 639.1 square feet, 11 959.9 square yards, or 2.471 054 acres.
 QUDT
Hectare
HAR
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HA
har
http://dbpedia.org/page/Hectare
A nonSI metric unit of area defined as the square with 100metre sides.
The customary metric unit of land area, equal to 100 ares. One hectare is a square hectometer, that is, the area of a square 100 meters on each side: exactly 10 000 square meters or approximately 107 639.1 square feet, 11 959.9 square yards, or 2.471 054 acres.
 QUDT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hectare
T0 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Area'.
AreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Area'.
SpecialUnit
A unit symbol that stands for a derived unit.
Special units are semiotic shortcuts to more complex composed symbolic objects.
Pa stands for N/m2
J stands for N m
SpecialUnit
A unit symbol that stands for a derived unit.
Declarer
An interpreter who establish the connection between an conventional sign and an object according to a specific convention.
A scientist that assigns a quantity to a physical objects without actually measuring it but taking it for granted due to its previous experience (e.g. considering an electron charge as 1.6027663e19 C, assigning a molecular mass to a gas only by the fact of a name on the bottle).
Someone who assigns a name to an object.
Declarer
An interpreter who establish the connection between an conventional sign and an object according to a specific convention.
Interpreter
The entity (or agent, or observer, or cognitive entity) who connects 'Sign', 'Interpretant' and 'Object'.
The interpreter is not the ontologist, being the ontologist acting outside the ontology at the metaontology level.
On the contrary, the interpreter is an agent recognized by the ontologist. The semiotic branch of the EMMO is the tool used by the ontologist to represent an interpreter's semiotic activity.
For example, the ontologist may be interest in cataloguing in the EMMO how the same object (e.g. a cat) is addressed using different signs (e.g. cat, gatto, chat) by different interpreters (e.g. english, italian or french people).
The same applies for the results of measurements: the ontologist may be interest to represent in the EMMO how different measurement processes (i.e. semiosis) lead to different quantitative results (i.e. signs) according to different measurement devices (i.e. interpreters).
Interpreter
The entity (or agent, or observer, or cognitive entity) who connects 'Sign', 'Interpretant' and 'Object'.
The interpreter is not the ontologist, being the ontologist acting outside the ontology at the metaontology level.
On the contrary, the interpreter is an agent recognized by the ontologist. The semiotic branch of the EMMO is the tool used by the ontologist to represent an interpreter's semiotic activity.
C
Coulomb
SI unit for electric charge.
The SI unit of electric charge. One coulomb is the amount of charge accumulated in one second by a current of one ampere. Electricity is actually a flow of charged particles, such as electrons, protons, or ions. The charge on one of these particles is a wholenumber multiple of the charge e on a single electron, and one coulomb represents a charge of approximately 6.241 506 x 1018 e. The coulomb is named for a French physicist, CharlesAugustin de Coulomb (17361806), who was the first to measure accurately the forces exerted between electric charges.
 QUDT
Coulomb
COU
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/C
C
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Coulomb
SI unit for electric charge.
The SI unit of electric charge. One coulomb is the amount of charge accumulated in one second by a current of one ampere. Electricity is actually a flow of charged particles, such as electrons, protons, or ions. The charge on one of these particles is a wholenumber multiple of the charge e on a single electron, and one coulomb represents a charge of approximately 6.241 506 x 1018 e. The coulomb is named for a French physicist, CharlesAugustin de Coulomb (17361806), who was the first to measure accurately the forces exerted between electric charges.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulomb?oldid=491815163
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01365
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricChargeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCharge'.
ElectricChargeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCharge'.
SISpecialUnit
The 22 derived units that are given a special name in the SI system that stands for units derived by SI base units.
These units are SI coherent by definition.
SISpecialUnit
The 22 derived units that are given a special name in the SI system that stands for units derived by SI base units.
These units are SI coherent by definition.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Units#Derived_units
EMMO
EMMO entities dimensionality is related to their mereocausal structures. From the nodimensional quantum entity, we introduce time dimension with the elementary concept, and the spacetime with the causal system concept.
The EMMO conceptualisation does not allow the existence of space without a temporal dimension, the latter coming from a causal relation between entities.
For this reason, the EMMO entities that are not quantum or elementaries, may be considered to be always spatiotemporal. The EMMO poses no constraints to the number of spatial dimensions for a causal system (except being higher than one).
The EMMO conceptualises the world using the primitive concepts of causality and parthood. Parthood is about the composition of world entities starting from other more fundamental entities. Causality is about the interactions between world entities.
The quantum is the smallest indivisible part of any world entity. Quantum individuals are the fundamental causal constituents of the universe, since it is implied that causality originates from quantumtoquantum interactions. Quantums are nodimensional, and their aggregation makes spacetime emerge from their causal structure. Causality between macro entities (i.e. entities made of more than one quantum) is explained as the sum of the causality relations between their quantum constituents. Fundamental interactions (quantum fields) are represented as symmetric causality between macro entities, while classical interactions are mediated by chain of quantums (i.e. elementary particles).
The fundamental distinction between world entities is direct causality selfconnectedness: a world entity can be selfconnected xor not selfconnected depending on the causality network of its fundamental components.
Void regions do not exist in the EMMO, or in other words there is no spacetime without entities, since space and time are measured quantities following a causality relation between entities (spacetime emerges as relational property not as a selfstanding entity).
Entities are not placed in space or time: space and time are always relative between entities and are measured. In other words, space and time relations originates from causality interactions.
The class of all the OWL individuals representing world entities according to EMMO conceptualisation.
The disjoint union of the fundamental mereocausal classes of Quantum, CausalPath, CausalSystem and Collection.
EMMO
The EMMO conceptualises the world using the primitive concepts of causality and parthood. Parthood is about the composition of world entities starting from other more fundamental entities. Causality is about the interactions between world entities.
The quantum is the smallest indivisible part of any world entity. Quantum individuals are the fundamental causal constituents of the universe, since it is implied that causality originates from quantumtoquantum interactions. Quantums are nodimensional, and their aggregation makes spacetime emerge from their causal structure. Causality between macro entities (i.e. entities made of more than one quantum) is explained as the sum of the causality relations between their quantum constituents. Fundamental interactions (quantum fields) are represented as symmetric causality between macro entities, while classical interactions are mediated by chain of quantums (i.e. elementary particles).
The fundamental distinction between world entities is direct causality selfconnectedness: a world entity can be selfconnected xor not selfconnected depending on the causality network of its fundamental components.
Void regions do not exist in the EMMO, or in other words there is no spacetime without entities, since space and time are measured quantities following a causality relation between entities (spacetime emerges as relational property not as a selfstanding entity).
Entities are not placed in space or time: space and time are always relative between entities and are measured. In other words, space and time relations originates from causality interactions.
The disjoint union of the fundamental mereocausal classes of Quantum, CausalPath, CausalSystem and Collection.
The class of all the OWL individuals representing world entities according to EMMO conceptualisation.
EMMO entities dimensionality is related to their mereocausal structures. From the nodimensional quantum entity, we introduce time dimension with the elementary concept, and the spacetime with the causal system concept.
The EMMO conceptualisation does not allow the existence of space without a temporal dimension, the latter coming from a causal relation between entities.
For this reason, the EMMO entities that are not quantum or elementaries, may be considered to be always spatiotemporal. The EMMO poses no constraints to the number of spatial dimensions for a causal system (except being higher than one).
SIUnitSymbol
A unit symbol that belongs to the SI system. Is either a SI base unit or a SI special unit.
SIUnitSymbol
A unit symbol that belongs to the SI system. Is either a SI base unit or a SI special unit.
UnitSymbol
A symbol that stands for a single unit.
Some examples are "Pa", "m" and "J".
UnitSymbol
A symbol that stands for a single unit.
SICoherentUnit
A unit that can be expressed as a product of powers of SI base units with no prefactor of offset.
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units. When the numerical factor of this product is one, the derived units are called coherent derived units. The base and coherent derived units of the SI form a coherent set, designated the set of coherent SI units.
SICoherentUnit
A unit that can be expressed as a product of powers of SI base units with no prefactor of offset.
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units. When the numerical factor of this product is one, the derived units are called coherent derived units. The base and coherent derived units of the SI form a coherent set, designated the set of coherent SI units.
SpecificGibbsEnergy
Gibbs energy per unit mass.
SpecificGibbsEnergy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificGibbsEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q76360636
521.5
Gibbs energy per unit mass.
SpecificEnergy
Energy per unit mass
SpecificEnergy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpecificEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3023293
https://dbpedia.org/page/Specific_energy
521.1
Energy per unit mass
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Specific_energy
3600.0
0.0
VoltAmpereHour
product of the unit for apparent by ampere and the unit hour
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Volt Ampere Hour
VoltAmpereHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VAHR
V.A.h
V⋅A⋅hr
product of the unit for apparent by ampere and the unit hour
 QUDT
T2 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
EnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Energy'.
EnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Energy'.
ThermalConductivity
At a point fixed in a medium with a temperature field, scalar quantity λ characterizing the ability of the medium to transmit heat through a surface element containing that point: φ = −λ grad T, where φ is the density of heat flow rate and T is thermodynamic temperature.
In an anisotropic medium, thermal conductivity is a tensor quantity.
ThermalConductivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalConductivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q487005
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130438
https://dbpedia.org/page/Thermal_conductivity
59
At a point fixed in a medium with a temperature field, scalar quantity λ characterizing the ability of the medium to transmit heat through a surface element containing that point: φ = −λ grad T, where φ is the density of heat flow rate and T is thermodynamic temperature.
ThermodynamicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800005.
ThermodynamicalQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 800005.
0.001
0.0
FaradPerKiloMetre
SI derived unit farad divided by the 1 000fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Farad Per Kilometre
FaradPerKiloMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/FARADPERKiloM
F.km1
F/km
F/km
SI derived unit farad divided by the 1 000fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
T+4 L3 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
PermittivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Permittivity'.
PermittivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Permittivity'.
SINonCoherentDerivedUnit
A derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
cm/s
SINonCoherentDerivedUnit
A derived unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
0.01745329
0.0
DegreePerSquareSecond
`Degree per Square Second` is an Imperial unit for `Angular Acceleration` expressed as deg/s².
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Degree per Square Second
DegreePerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERSEC2
deg.s2
deg/s2
°/s²
`Degree per Square Second` is an Imperial unit for `Angular Acceleration` expressed as deg/s².
 QUDT
T2 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AngularFrequencyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AngularFrequency'.
AngularFrequencyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AngularFrequency'.
JouleThomsonCoefficient
Change of thermodynamic temperature with respect to pressure in a JouleThomson process at constant enthalpy.
JouleThomsonCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q93946998
524
Change of thermodynamic temperature with respect to pressure in a JouleThomson process at constant enthalpy.
ChipboardManufacturing
ChipboardManufacturing
FormingFromChip
FormingFromChip
PlanckConstant
The quantum of action. It defines the kg base unit in the SI system.
PlanckConstant
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/PlanckConstant
The quantum of action. It defines the kg base unit in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04685
AngularMomentum
Measure of the extent and direction an object rotates about a reference point.
AngularMomentum
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularMomentum
411
Measure of the extent and direction an object rotates about a reference point.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00353
SIExactConstant
Physical constant that by definition (after the latest revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019) has a known exact numerical value when expressed in SI units.
SIExactConstant
Physical constant that by definition (after the latest revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019) has a known exact numerical value when expressed in SI units.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
LuminousIntensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LuminousIntensity'.
LuminousIntensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LuminousIntensity'.
EquilibriumConstant
The physical dimension can change based on the stoichiometric numbers of the substances involved.
for solutions, product for all substances B of concentration c_B of substance B in power of its stoichiometric number v_B: K_p = \sum_B{c_B^{v_B}}.
EquilibriumConstantConcentrationBasis
EquilibriumConstant
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/EquilibriumConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q857809
for solutions, product for all substances B of concentration c_B of substance B in power of its stoichiometric number v_B: K_p = \sum_B{c_B^{v_B}}.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equilibrium_constant
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02177
MobilityRatio
Quotient of electron and hole mobility.
MobilityRatio
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MobilityRatio
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106010255
1231
Quotient of electron and hole mobility.
CondensedMatterPhysicsQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 8000012.
CondensedMatterPhysicsQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 8000012.
RatioQuantity
Quantities defined as ratios `Q=A/B` having equal dimensions in numerator and denominator are dimensionless quantities but still have a physical dimension defined as dim(A)/dim(B).
Johansson, Ingvar (2010). "Metrological thinking needs the notions of parametric quantities, units and dimensions". Metrologia. 47 (3): 219–230. doi:10.1088/00261394/47/3/012. ISSN 00261394.
The class of quantities that are the ratio of two quantities with the same physical dimensionality.
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/00261394/47/3/012
refractive index,
volume fraction,
fine structure constant
RatioQuantity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DimensionlessRatio
The class of quantities that are the ratio of two quantities with the same physical dimensionality.
ElectronicModel
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of electrons.
Density functional theory.
HartreeFock.
ElectronicModel
A physicsbased model based on a physics equation describing the behaviour of electrons.
0.0
0.01745329
DegreePerSecond
"Degree per Second" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/s.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Degree per Second
DegreePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERSEC
deg.s1
deg/s
°/s
"Degree per Second" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/s.
 QUDT
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
FrequencyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Frequency'.
FrequencyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Frequency'.
0.0
1.0
KelvinSquareMetrePerKilogramPerSecond
Kelvin square metres per kilogram and second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
KelvinSquareMetrePerKilogramPerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KM2PERKiloGMSEC
K.m2.kg1.s1
K⋅m²/(kg⋅s)
Kelvin square metres per kilogram and second.
T1 L+2 M1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
TemperatureAreaPerMassTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'TemperatureAreaPerMassTime'.
TemperatureAreaPerMassTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'TemperatureAreaPerMassTime'.
Plasma
A fluid in which a gas is ionized to a level where its electrical conductivity allows longrange electric and magnetic fields to dominate its behaviour.
Plasma
A fluid in which a gas is ionized to a level where its electrical conductivity allows longrange electric and magnetic fields to dominate its behaviour.
Be
BerylliumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the beryllium atom.
BerylliumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the beryllium atom.
Ga
GalliumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the gallium atom.
GalliumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the gallium atom.
Pd
PalladiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the palladium atom.
PalladiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the palladium atom.
SIDerivedUnit
A derived unit that belongs to the SI system.
SIDerivedUnit
A derived unit that belongs to the SI system.
DerivedUnit
A measurement unit for a derived quantity.
 VIM
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units corresponding to the relations defining the derived quantities in terms of the base quantities.
DerivedUnit
Derived units are defined as products of powers of the base units corresponding to the relations defining the derived quantities in terms of the base quantities.
derived unit
A measurement unit for a derived quantity.
 VIM
SIUnit
The complete set of SI units includes both the coherent set and the multiples and submultiples formed by using the SI prefixes.
The names, symbols and prefixes of SI units are defined by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Conference_on_Weights_and_Measures
The set of units provided by the SI referring to the ISQ.
SIUnit
The set of units provided by the SI referring to the ISQ.
0.0
1.0
PerSquareKilogram
Per Square Kilogram is a denominator unit with dimensions /kg².
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalSquareKilogram
PerSquareKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERKiloGM2
kg2
/kg²
Per Square Kilogram is a denominator unit with dimensions /kg².
 QUDT
T0 L0 M2 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
InverseSquareMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'InverseSquareMass'.
InverseSquareMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'InverseSquareMass'.
Reductionistic
A class devoted to categorize causal objects by specifying their granularity levels.
A granularity level is specified by a tiling decomposition of the whole y. A tiling is identified as a set of items {x1, x2, ... xn} called tiles that:
 are proper parts of y
 covers the entire whole (y = x1 +x2 + ... + xn)
 do not overlap
 are part of one, and one only, whole (inverse functional)
Reductionistic
A class devoted to categorize causal objects by specifying their granularity levels.
A granularity level is specified by a tiling decomposition of the whole y. A tiling is identified as a set of items {x1, x2, ... xn} called tiles that:
 are proper parts of y
 covers the entire whole (y = x1 +x2 + ... + xn)
 do not overlap
 are part of one, and one only, whole (inverse functional)
Direct parthood is the antitransitive parthood relation used to build the class hierarchy (and the granularity hierarchy) for this perspective.
Perspective
The class of causal objects that stand for world objects according to a specific representational perspective.
This class is the practical implementation of the EMMO pluralistic approach for which the only objective categorization is provided by the Universe individual and all the Quantum individuals.
Between these two extremes, there are several subjective ways to categorize real world objects, each one provide under a 'Perspective' subclass.
Perspective
The class of causal objects that stand for world objects according to a specific representational perspective.
This class is the practical implementation of the EMMO pluralistic approach for which the only objective categorization is provided by the Universe individual and all the Quantum individuals.
Between these two extremes, there are several subjective ways to categorize real world objects, each one provide under a 'Perspective' subclass.
3600.0
0.0
LuxHour
The SI unit for measuring the illumination (illuminance) of a surface. One lux is defined as an illumination of one lumen per square meter or 0.0001 phot. In considering the various light units, it's useful to think about light originating at a point and shining upon a surface. The intensity of the light source is measured in candelas; the total light flux in transit is measured in lumens (1 lumen = 1 candelau00b7steradian); and the amount of light received per unit of surface area is measured in lux (1 lux = 1 lumen/square meter). One lux is equal to approximately 0.09290 foot candle.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Lux Hour
LuxHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LUXHR
lx.h
lx⋅hr
The SI unit for measuring the illumination (illuminance) of a surface. One lux is defined as an illumination of one lumen per square meter or 0.0001 phot. In considering the various light units, it's useful to think about light originating at a point and shining upon a surface. The intensity of the light source is measured in candelas; the total light flux in transit is measured in lumens (1 lumen = 1 candelau00b7steradian); and the amount of light received per unit of surface area is measured in lux (1 lux = 1 lumen/square meter). One lux is equal to approximately 0.09290 foot candle.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lux?oldid=494700274
T+1 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J+1
IlluminanceTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'IlluminanceTime'.
IlluminanceTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'IlluminanceTime'.
SymbolicConstruct
A symbolic entity made of other symbolic entities according to a specific spatial configuration.
This class collects individuals that represents arrangements of strings, or other symbolic compositions, without any particular predifined arrangement schema.
SymbolicConstruct
A symbolic entity made of other symbolic entities according to a specific spatial configuration.
This class collects individuals that represents arrangements of strings, or other symbolic compositions, without any particular predifined arrangement schema.
Symbolic
A discrete data whose elements can be decoded as tokens from one or more alphabets, without necessarily respecting syntactic rules.
A symbolic entity is not necessarily graphical (e.g. it doesn't necessarily have the physical shape of a letter), but its elements can be decoded and put in relation with an alphabet.
In other words, a sequence of bit "1000010" in a RAM (a nongraphical entity) is a valid symbol since it can be decoded through ASCII rules as the letter "B". The same holds for an entity standing for the sound of a voice saying: "Hello", since it can be decomposed in discrete parts, each of them being associated to a letter of an alphabet.
fe780
emmo
!5*a
cat
for(i=0;i<N;++i)
Symbolic
A discrete data whose elements can be decoded as tokens from one or more alphabets, without necessarily respecting syntactic rules.
A symbolic entity is not necessarily graphical (e.g. it doesn't necessarily have the physical shape of a letter), but its elements can be decoded and put in relation with an alphabet.
In other words, a sequence of bit "1000010" in a RAM (a nongraphical entity) is a valid symbol since it can be decoded through ASCII rules as the letter "B". The same holds for an entity standing for the sound of a voice saying: "Hello", since it can be decomposed in discrete parts, each of them being associated to a letter of an alphabet.
A symbolic object possesses a reductionistic oriented structure.
For example, text is made of words, spaces and punctuations. Words are made of characters (i.e. atomic symbols).
The structure of an array can be expressed mereologically. An array consists of a set of equally sized tiles. The tiles of an ndimensional array are (n1)dimensional,
the tiles of an (n1)dimensional array are (n2)dimensional and so forth...
The tiles of a vector (1dimensional array) are scalar symbolic data (that is symbolic data that are not subclasses of array).
The `hasSpatialTile` relation, can be used to navigate between dimensions.
The `hasPart` relation can be used to refer to the scalar data
SpatialTiling
A well formed tessellation with tiles that all spatial.
SpatialTiling
A well formed tessellation with tiles that all spatial.
SpatioTemporalTessellation
A tessellation in which all tiles are connected through spatiotemporal relations hasNext or contacts.
WellFormedTessellation
SpatioTemporalTessellation
A tessellation in which all tiles are connected through spatiotemporal relations hasNext or contacts.
1000.0
0.0
PerMilliSecond
Per millisecond.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalMilliSecond
PerMilliSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliSEC
ms1
/ms
Per millisecond.
1000.0
0.0
MolePerCubicDeciMetre
SI base unit mol divided by the 0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Mole Per Cubic Decimetre
MolePerCubicDeciMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERDeciM3
mol.dm3
mol/dm³
SI base unit mol divided by the 0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
T0 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
AmountConcentrationUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountConcentration'.
AmountConcentrationUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountConcentration'.
WorkPiece
A WorkPiece is physical artifact, that has a proper shape and occupyes a proper volume intended for subsequent transformation. It is a condensed state, so it is a compact body that is processed or has to be processed.
A solid is defined as a portion of matter that is in a condensed state characterised by resistance to deformation and volume changes.
In manufacturing, a workpiece is a single, delimited part of largely solid material that is processed in some form (e.g. stone ).
In physics, a rigid body (also known as a rigid object[2]) is a solid body in which deformation is zero or so small it can be neglected. The distance between any two given points on a rigid body remains constant in time regardless of external forces or moments exerted on it. A rigid body is usually considered as a continuous distribution of mass.
It has a shape, so we conclude that it is solid
Object that is processed with a machine
Seems to have to be processed through mechanical deformation. So it takes part of a manufacturing process. It is a Manufactured Product and it can be a Commercial Product
The raw material or partially finished piece that is shaped by performing various operations.
They are not powders or threads
a physical artifact, real or virtual, intended for subsequent transformation within some manufacturing operation
fili e polveri non sono compresi
it seems to be an intermediate product, that has to reach the final shape.
it seems to be solid, so it has a proper shape
powder is not workpiece because it has the shape of the recipient containing them
Werkstück
WorkPiece
A WorkPiece is physical artifact, that has a proper shape and occupyes a proper volume intended for subsequent transformation. It is a condensed state, so it is a compact body that is processed or has to be processed.
ManufacturedMaterial
A material that is obtained through a manufacturing process.
EngineeredMaterial
ProcessedMaterial
ManufacturedMaterial
A material that is obtained through a manufacturing process.
T0 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
VolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Volume'.
VolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Volume'.
Dy
DysprosiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the dysprosium atom.
DysprosiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the dysprosium atom.
CountingUnit
Unit for dimensionless quantities that have the nature of count.
Unit of atomic number
Unit of number of cellular
Unit of degeneracy in quantum mechanics
CountingUnit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NUM
1
Unit for dimensionless quantities that have the nature of count.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
DimensionlessUnit
The subclass of measurement units with no physical dimension.
Refractive index
Plane angle
Number of apples
DimensionlessUnit
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/UNITLESS
The subclass of measurement units with no physical dimension.
FractionUnit
Quantities that are ratios of quantities of the same kind (for example length ratios and amount fractions) have the option of being expressed with units (m/m, mol/mol to aid the understanding of the quantity being expressed and also allow the use of SI prefixes, if this
is desirable (μm/m, nmol/mol).
 SI Brochure
Unit for fractions of quantities of the same kind, to aid the understanding of the quantity being expressed.
RatioUnit
FractionUnit
Unit for fractions of quantities of the same kind, to aid the understanding of the quantity being expressed.
ProtonMass
The rest mass of a proton.
ProtonMass
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/ProtonMass
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04914
MeasuredConstant
For a given unit system, measured constants are physical constants that are not used to define the unit system. Hence, these constants have to be measured and will therefore be associated with an uncertainty.
MeasuredConstant
For a given unit system, measured constants are physical constants that are not used to define the unit system. Hence, these constants have to be measured and will therefore be associated with an uncertainty.
CoefficientOfFriction
Dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the force of friction between two bodies and the force pressing them together; depends on the materials used, ranges from near zero to greater than one.
FrictionCoefficient
FrictionFactor
CoefficientOfFriction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1932524
Dimensionless scalar value which describes the ratio of the force of friction between two bodies and the force pressing them together; depends on the materials used, ranges from near zero to greater than one.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02530
Cogniser
An interpreter who establish the connection between an icon an an object recognizing their resemblance (e.g. logical, pictorial)
The scientist that connects an equation to a physical phenomenon.
Cogniser
An interpreter who establish the connection between an icon an an object recognizing their resemblance (e.g. logical, pictorial)
AreaDensity
Mass per unit area.
AreaDensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SurfaceDensity
Mass per unit area.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S06167
SymbolicData
A symbolic data is a a data that is rooted on some symbolic based encoding, such as floating point numbers, strings, integer. They are not to be intended as mathematical entities (even if they may be interpreted as such) but as syntactic structures (datastructures or datatypes) based on concatenated tokens (or symbols, letters) that can deliver data.
The class for entities which stands for data expressed using a symbolic encoding.
https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/RECxmlschema11220120405/#builtindatatypes
https://www.w3.org/TR/rdf11concepts/
https://www.w3.org/TR/2012/RECowl2syntax20121211/#Datatype_Maps
https://www.w3schools.com/xml/schema_dtypes_numeric.asp
LiteralData
SymbolicData
A symbolic data is a a data that is rooted on some symbolic based encoding, such as floating point numbers, strings, integer. They are not to be intended as mathematical entities (even if they may be interpreted as such) but as syntactic structures (datastructures or datatypes) based on concatenated tokens (or symbols, letters) that can deliver data.
The class for entities which stands for data expressed using a symbolic encoding.
1000000000.0
0.0
CubicKiloMetrePerSquareSecond
`Cubic Kilometer per Square Second` is a unit for `Standard Gravitational Parameter` expressed as km³/s².
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Kilometre per Square Second
CubicKiloMetrePerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KiloM3PERSEC2
km3.s2
km3/s2
km³/s²
`Cubic Kilometer per Square Second` is a unit for `Standard Gravitational Parameter` expressed as km³/s².
 QUDT
T2 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
VolumePerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerSquareTime'.
VolumePerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerSquareTime'.
0.0
1e09
MicroGram
0.000000001fold of the SI base unit kilogram
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MicroGram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroGM
ug
μg
0.000000001fold of the SI base unit kilogram
 QUDT
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Mass'.
MassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Mass'.
SINonCoherentUnit
A nonSI coherent can be expressed in terms of its corresponding SI coherent unit, as
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
where `multiplier` and `offset` are specified via the 'hasConversionMultiplier' and 'hasConversionOffset' data properties, respectively.
A unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
SINonCoherentUnit
A unit whos numerical factor in front of the product of base units is NOT equal to one.
A nonSI coherent can be expressed in terms of its corresponding SI coherent unit, as
nonsi_coherent_unit = si_coherent_unit * multiplier + offset
where `multiplier` and `offset` are specified via the 'hasConversionMultiplier' and 'hasConversionOffset' data properties, respectively.
MeasurementUnit
"Real scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same kind can be compared to express the ratio of the second quantity to the first one as a number"
ISO 800001
A metrological reference for a physical quantity.
kg
m/s
km
MeasurementUnit
A metrological reference for a physical quantity.
measurement unit (VIM3 1.9)
"Real scalar quantity, defined and adopted by convention, with which any other quantity of the same kind can be compared to express the ratio of the second quantity to the first one as a number"
ISO 800001
"Unit symbols are mathematical entities and not abbreviations."
"Symbols for units are treated as mathematical entities. In expressing the value of a quantity as the product of a numerical value and a unit, both the numerical value and the unit may be treated by the ordinary rules of algebra."
https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/sibrochure/SIBrochure9EN.pdf
Measurement units and procedure units are disjoint.
Quantitative value are expressed as a multiple of the 'MeasurementUnit'.
1
1
PrefixedUnit
A measurement unit that is made of a metric prefix and a unit symbol.
PrefixedUnit
A measurement unit that is made of a metric prefix and a unit symbol.
SIMetricPrefixedUnit
A SI base or special unit with a metric prefix.
The presence of the prefix makes this units noncoherent with SI system.
SIMetricPrefixedUnit
A SI base or special unit with a metric prefix.
0.0
0.1
TonnePerHectare
A measure of density equivalent to 1000kg per hectare or one Megagram per hectare, typically used to express a volume of biomass or crop yield.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MetricTonnePerHectare
metric tonne per hectare
tonne per hectare
TonnePerHectare
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TONNEPERHA
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/TON_MetricPERHA
t.har1
t/ha
A measure of density equivalent to 1000kg per hectare or one Megagram per hectare, typically used to express a volume of biomass or crop yield.
 QUDT
T0 L2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaDensity'.
AreaDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaDensity'.
WorkpieceForming
A manufacturing in which it is formed a solid body with its shape from shapeless original material parts, whose cohesion is created during the process.
ArchetypeForming
PrimitiveForming
WorkpieceForming
Manufacturing
Deals with entities that have a defined shape.
The process of transforming precursor objects (e.g. raw materials) into a product by the use of manual labor, machinery or chemical/biological processes.
DIN 8580:2020
ISO 155311:2004
manufacturing: function or act of converting or transforming material from raw material or semifinished state to a state of further completion
ISO 184351:2009
manufacturing process: set of processes in manufacturing involving a flow and/or transformation of material, information, energy, control, or any other element in a manufacturing area
Manufacturing
The process of transforming precursor objects (e.g. raw materials) into a product by the use of manual labor, machinery or chemical/biological processes.
Deals with entities that have a defined shape.
https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fertigungsverfahren
0.0
1e06
MicroFaradPerMetre
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit farad divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Microfarad Per Metre
MicroFaradPerMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroFARADPERM
uF.m1
μF/m
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit farad divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
Wavenumber
Reciprocal of the wavelength.
Repetency
Wavenumber
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Wavenumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q192510
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1031011
https://dbpedia.org/page/Wavenumber
320
Reciprocal of the wavelength.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wavenumber
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06664
ReciprocalLength
The inverse of length.
InverseLength
ReciprocalLength
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/InverseLength
The inverse of length.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reciprocal_length
0.0
1.0
NewtonPerCoulomb
Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) is a unit in the category of Electric field strength. It is also known as newtons/coulomb. Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) has a dimension of MLT3I1 where M is mass, L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. It essentially the same as the corresponding standard SI unit V/m.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Newton per Coulomb
NewtonPerCoulomb
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERC
N.C1
N/C
Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) is a unit in the category of Electric field strength. It is also known as newtons/coulomb. Newton Per Coulomb ( N/C) has a dimension of MLT3I1 where M is mass, L is length, T is time, and I is electric current. It essentially the same as the corresponding standard SI unit V/m.
 QUDT
T3 L+1 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricFieldStrengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricFieldStrength'.
ElectricFieldStrengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricFieldStrength'.
Cf
CaliforniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the californium atom.
CaliforniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the californium atom.
0.0
0.01666667
CubicMetrePerMinute
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit minute
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Metre Per Minute
CubicMetrePerMinute
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERMIN
m3.min1
m³/min
power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit minute
 QUDT
T1 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
VolumePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerTime'.
VolumePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerTime'.
RelativePermittivity
Permittivity divided by electric constant.
RelativePermittivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMITTIVITY_REL
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4027242
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211213
615
Permittivity divided by electric constant.
QualityFactor
Factor taking into account health effects in the determination of the dose equivalent.
QualityFactor
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DoseEquivalentQualityFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2122099
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811403
1082
Factor taking into account health effects in the determination of the dose equivalent.
AtomicAndNuclearPhysicsQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 8000010.
AtomicAndNuclearPhysicsQuantity
Quantities categorised according to ISO 8000010.
53
126.90447
IodineAtom
Atom subclass for iodine.
IodineAtom
Atom subclass for iodine.
MaterialTreatment
esce workpiece
Has shaped bodies as input and output.
The processing of a material aimed to transform its structure by means of any type of treatment, without involving relevant synthesis phenomena.
DIN 8580:2020
Stoffeigenschaft ändern
WorkPieceTreatment
MaterialTreatment
The processing of a material aimed to transform its structure by means of any type of treatment, without involving relevant synthesis phenomena.
Manufacturing by changing the properties of the material of which a workpiece is made, which is done, among other things, by changes in the submicroscopic or atomic range, e.g. by diffusion of atoms, generation and movement of dislocations in the atomic lattice or chemical reactions, and where unavoidable changes in shape are not part of the essence of these processes.
Has shaped bodies as input and output.
MaterialsProcessing
A manufacturing process aimed to modify the precursor objects through a physical process (involving other materials, energy, manipulation) to change its material properties.
A material process requires the output to be classified as an individual of a material subclass.
ContinuumManufacturing
Synthesis of materials, quenching, the preparation of a cake, tempering of a steel beam.
MaterialsProcessing
A manufacturing process aimed to modify the precursor objects through a physical process (involving other materials, energy, manipulation) to change its material properties.
A material process requires the output to be classified as an individual of a material subclass.
0.0
1.0
CoulombPerKilogram
`Coulomb Per Kilogram (C/kg)` is the unit in the category of Exposure. It is also known as coulombs per kilogram, coulomb/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Per Kilogram (C/kg) has a dimension of M⁻¹TI where M is mass, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Coulomb per Kilogram
CoulombPerKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERKiloGM
C.kg1
C/kg
C/kg
`Coulomb Per Kilogram (C/kg)` is the unit in the category of Exposure. It is also known as coulombs per kilogram, coulomb/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Coulomb Per Kilogram (C/kg) has a dimension of M⁻¹TI where M is mass, T is time, and I is electric current. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
T+1 L0 M1 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricChargePerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargePerMass'.
ElectricChargePerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargePerMass'.
HalfLife
Mean duration required for the decay of one half of the atoms or nuclei.
HalfLife
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HalfLife
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98118544
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950112
1031
Mean duration required for the decay of one half of the atoms or nuclei.
Duration
Physical quantity for describing the temporal distance between events.
Duration
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2199864
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130113
39
Physical quantity for describing the temporal distance between events.
ShortRangeOrderParameter
fraction of nearestneighbour atom pairs in an Ising ferromagnet having magnetic moments in one direction, minus the fraction having magnetic moments in the opposite direction
ShortRangeOrderParameter
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ShortRangeOrderParameter
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105495979
125.1
fraction of nearestneighbour atom pairs in an Ising ferromagnet having magnetic moments in one direction, minus the fraction having magnetic moments in the opposite direction
49
114.818
IndiumAtom
Atom subclass for indium.
IndiumAtom
Atom subclass for indium.
TemporalRole
An holistic temporal part of a whole.
HolisticTemporalPart
TemporalRole
An holistic temporal part of a whole.
Role
An entity that is categorized according to its relation with a whole through a parthood relation and that contributes to it according to an holistic criterion, where the type of the whole is not the type of the part.
In this class the concept of role and part are superimposed (the term part is also used to define the role played by an actor).
Here entities are categorized according to their relation with the whole, i.e. how they contribute to make a specific whole, and not what they are as separate entities.
This class is expected to host the definition of world objects as they appear in its relation with the surrounding whole (being a part implies being surrounded by something bigger to which it contributes).
HolisticPart
Part
Role
An entity that is categorized according to its relation with a whole through a parthood relation and that contributes to it according to an holistic criterion, where the type of the whole is not the type of the part.
In this class the concept of role and part are superimposed (the term part is also used to define the role played by an actor).
Here entities are categorized according to their relation with the whole, i.e. how they contribute to make a specific whole, and not what they are as separate entities.
This class is expected to host the definition of world objects as they appear in its relation with the surrounding whole (being a part implies being surrounded by something bigger to which it contributes).
StructureFactor
Mathematical description in crystallography.
StructureFactor
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/StructureFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q900684
125.4
Mathematical description in crystallography.
1.0
0.0
JoulePerKilogramKelvin
Specific heat capacity  The heat required to raise unit mass of a substance by unit temperature interval under specified conditions, such as constant pressure: usually measured in joules per kelvin per kilogram. Symbol c_p (for constant pressure) Also called specific heat.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Joule per Kilogram Kelvin
JoulePerKilogramKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERKiloGMK
J.kg1.K1
J/(kg⋅K)
Specific heat capacity  The heat required to raise unit mass of a substance by unit temperature interval under specified conditions, such as constant pressure: usually measured in joules per kelvin per kilogram. Symbol c_p (for constant pressure) Also called specific heat.
 QUDT
T2 L+2 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
EntropyPerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'EntropyPerMass'.
EntropyPerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'EntropyPerMass'.
MeasuredProperty
A quantity that is the result of a welldefined measurement procedure.
The specification of a measurand requires knowledge of the kind of quantity, description of the state of the phenomenon, body, or substance carrying the quantity, including any relevant component, and the chemical entities involved.
 VIM
MeasuredProperty
A quantity that is the result of a welldefined measurement procedure.
ObjectiveProperty
A quantity that is obtained from a welldefined procedure.
Subclasses of 'ObjectiveProperty' classify objects according to the type semiosis that is used to connect the property to the object (e.g. by measurement, by convention, by modelling).
The word objective does not mean that each observation will provide the same results. It means that the observation followed a well defined procedure.
This class refers to what is commonly known as physical property, i.e. a measurable property of physical system, whether is quantifiable or not.
PhysicalProperty
QuantitativeProperty
ObjectiveProperty
A quantity that is obtained from a welldefined procedure.
The word objective does not mean that each observation will provide the same results. It means that the observation followed a well defined procedure.
This class refers to what is commonly known as physical property, i.e. a measurable property of physical system, whether is quantifiable or not.
GaugePressure
Gauge pressure can be measured using a diaphragm sensor, where one side of the diaphragm is exposed to the pressure media that is to be measured, while the other side is exposed to the ambient atmospheric pressure.
The pressure measured relative to the ambient atmospheric pressure.
GaugePressure
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q109594211
414.2
The pressure measured relative to the ambient atmospheric pressure.
Gauge pressure can be measured using a diaphragm sensor, where one side of the diaphragm is exposed to the pressure media that is to be measured, while the other side is exposed to the ambient atmospheric pressure.
Pressure
The force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Pressure
414.1
The force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04819
T3 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PowerUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Power'.
PowerUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Power'.
PhysicsMathematicalComputation
A functional icon that imitates the behaviour of the object through mathematical evaluations of some mathematical construct.
The equation that describes the velocity of a uniform accelerated body v = v0 + a*t is a functional icon. In general every analitical solution of a mathematical model can be considered an icon. A functional icon expresses its similarity with the object when is part of a process the makes it imitate the behavior of the object. In the case of v = v0 + a*t, plotting the velocity over time or listing their values at certain instants is when the icon expresses it functionality.
PhysicsMathematicalComputation
A functional icon that imitates the behaviour of the object through mathematical evaluations of some mathematical construct.
The equation that describes the velocity of a uniform accelerated body v = v0 + a*t is a functional icon. In general every analitical solution of a mathematical model can be considered an icon. A functional icon expresses its similarity with the object when is part of a process the makes it imitate the behavior of the object. In the case of v = v0 + a*t, plotting the velocity over time or listing their values at certain instants is when the icon expresses it functionality.
FunctionalIcon
An icon that focusing WHAT the object does.
An icon that imitates one representative character of the object. It share external similarities with the object, but not necessarily the same internal logical structure.
This subclass of icon inspired by Peirceian category (c) the metaphor, which represents the representative character of a sign by representing a parallelism in something else.
A data based model is only a functional icon, since it provide the same relations between the properties of the object (e.g., it can predict some properties as function of others) but is not considering the internal mechanisms (i.e., it can ignore the physics).
A guinea pig.
FunctionalIcon
An icon that imitates one representative character of the object. It share external similarities with the object, but not necessarily the same internal logical structure.
An icon that focusing WHAT the object does.
Computation
A procedure that deals with quantitative symbols (i.e. symbols associated with a quantitative oriented language).
A matematician that calculates 2+2.
A computation machine that calculate the average value of a dataset.
Computation
A procedure that deals with quantitative symbols (i.e. symbols associated with a quantitative oriented language).
Matter
A matter entity requires the presence of fermions without excluding the presence of real or virtual fundamental bosons parts that are responsible for the interactions between the (real) fundamental fermions.
The class of physical objects that have some fermionic quantum parts.
The interpretation of the term "matter" is not univocal. Several concepts are labelled with this term, depending on the field of science. The concept mass is sometimes related to the term "matter", even if the former refers to a physical quantity (precisely defined by modern physics) while the latter is a type that qualifies a physical entity.
It is possible to identify more than one concept that can be reasonably labelled with the term "matter". For example, it is possible to label as matter only the entities that are made up of atoms. Or more generally, we can be more finegrained and call "matter" the entities that are made up of protons, neutrons or electrons, so that we can call matter also a neutron radiation or a cathode ray.
A more fundamental approach, that we embrace for the EMMO, considers matter as entities that are made of fermions (i.e. quarks and leptons) requiring their presence, without excluding particles like the W and Z bosons that possess some mass, but are not fermions.
Antimatter is a subclass of matter.
PhysicalSubstance
Matter
The interpretation of the term "matter" is not univocal. Several concepts are labelled with this term, depending on the field of science. The concept mass is sometimes related to the term "matter", even if the former refers to a physical quantity (precisely defined by modern physics) while the latter is a type that qualifies a physical entity.
It is possible to identify more than one concept that can be reasonably labelled with the term "matter". For example, it is possible to label as matter only the entities that are made up of atoms. Or more generally, we can be more finegrained and call "matter" the entities that are made up of protons, neutrons or electrons, so that we can call matter also a neutron radiation or a cathode ray.
A more fundamental approach, that we embrace for the EMMO, considers matter as entities that are made of fermions (i.e. quarks and leptons) requiring their presence, without excluding particles like the W and Z bosons that possess some mass, but are not fermions.
Antimatter is a subclass of matter.
The class of physical objects that have some fermionic quantum parts.
A matter entity requires the presence of fermions without excluding the presence of real or virtual fundamental bosons parts that are responsible for the interactions between the (real) fundamental fermions.
Matter includes ordinary and antimatter. It is possible to have entities that are made of particle and antiparticles (e.g. mesons made of a quark and an antiquark pair) so that it is possible to have entities that are somewhat heterogeneous with regards to this distinction.
PressureFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two pressures.
PressureFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two pressures.
OrdinaryMatter
Matter composed of only matter particles, excluding antimatter particles.
OrdinaryMatter
Matter composed of only matter particles, excluding antimatter particles.
83
208.9804
BismuthAtom
Atom subclass for bismuth.
BismuthAtom
Atom subclass for bismuth.
MolarGasConstant
Equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole (rather than energy per temperature increment per particle).
MolarGasConstant
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/MolarGasConstant
937.1
Equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole (rather than energy per temperature increment per particle).
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02579
SpecificGasConstant
Quotient of the Boltzmann constant and the mass m.
SpecificGasConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q94372268
526
Quotient of the Boltzmann constant and the mass m.
1000000000000.0
T
Tera
SI prefix who's value is 1e12.
Tera
SI prefix who's value is 1e12.
SuperconductionTransitionTemperature
Critical thermodynamic temperature of a superconductor.
SuperconductionTransitionTemperature
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SuperconductionTransitionTemperature
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106103037
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8151009
1235.3
Critical thermodynamic temperature of a superconductor.
CriticalTemperature
Temperature below which quantum effects dominate.
CriticalTemperature
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1450516
Temperature below which quantum effects dominate.
MolarAttenuationCoefficient
Quotient of linear attenuation coefficient µ and the amount c of the medium.
MolarAttenuationCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98592828
1051
Quotient of linear attenuation coefficient µ and the amount c of the medium.
MeasuringInstrument
A measuring instrument that can be used alone is a measuring system.
Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with one or more supplementary devices.
 VIM
MeasuringInstrument
Device used for making measurements, alone or in conjunction with one or more supplementary devices.
 VIM
measuring instrument
RelativeMassFractionOfVapour
Quotient of mass concentration of water vapour and mass concentration at its saturation
ψ = r/rsat
where r is mass ratio of water vapour to dry gas and rsat is the mass ratio of water vapour to dry gas at saturation of the same temperature.
RelativeMassFractionOfVapour
535
Quotient of mass concentration of water vapour and mass concentration at its saturation
ψ = r/rsat
where r is mass ratio of water vapour to dry gas and rsat is the mass ratio of water vapour to dry gas at saturation of the same temperature.
0.0
1.0
SquareKilogramPerSquareSecond
Square kilogram per square second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquareKilogramPerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KiloGM2PERSEC2
kg2.s2
kg²/s²
Square kilogram per square second.
T2 L0 M+2 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SquareMassPerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquareMassPerSquareTime'.
SquareMassPerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquareMassPerSquareTime'.
CatalyticActivity
Increase in the rate of reaction of a specified chemical reaction that an enzyme produces in a specific assay system.
CatalyticActivity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/CatalyticActivity
Increase in the rate of reaction of a specified chemical reaction that an enzyme produces in a specific assay system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00881
C
CarbonSymbol
The symbol that stands for the carbon atom.
CarbonSymbol
The symbol that stands for the carbon atom.
TransformationLanguage
A construction language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal.
Tritium, XSLT, XQuery, STX, FXT, XDuce, CDuce, HaXml, XMLambda, FleXML
TransformationLanguage
A construction language designed to transform some input text in a certain formal language into a modified output text that meets some specific goal.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformation_language
ConstructionLanguage
A computer language by which a human can specify an executable problem solution to a computer.
ConstructionLanguage
A computer language by which a human can specify an executable problem solution to a computer.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_construction#Construction_languages
Magnetizing
Magnetizing
0.0
1.0
KelvinPerWatt
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measure of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal thermal conductance. Absolute thermal resistance is the temperature difference across a structure when a unit of heat energy flows through it in unit time. It is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. The SI units of thermal resistance are kelvins per watt or the equivalent degrees Celsius per watt (the two are the same since as intervals).
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Kelvin per Watt
KelvinPerWatt
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERW
K.W1
K/W
K/W
Thermal resistance is a heat property and a measure of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow (heat per time unit or thermal resistance). Thermal resistance is the reciprocal thermal conductance. Absolute thermal resistance is the temperature difference across a structure when a unit of heat energy flows through it in unit time. It is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. The SI units of thermal resistance are kelvins per watt or the equivalent degrees Celsius per watt (the two are the same since as intervals).
 QUDT
T+3 L2 M1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
ThermalResistanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalResistance'.
ThermalResistanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalResistance'.
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
PerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerAmount'.
PerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerAmount'.
CausalStructure
A causal structure expresses itself in time and space thanks to the underlying causality relations between its constituent quantum entities. It must at least provide two temporal parts. The unity criterion beyond the definition of a causal structure (the most general concept of structure) is the existence of an undirected causal path between each of its parts.
The class of individuals representing causally selfconnected world entities.
The disjoint union of Causal Path and CausalSystem classes.
The most fundamental unity criterion for the definition of an structure is that:
 is made of at least two quantums (a structure is not a simple entity)
 all quantum parts form a causally connected graph
CausalStructure
The most fundamental unity criterion for the definition of an structure is that:
 is made of at least two quantums (a structure is not a simple entity)
 all quantum parts form a causally connected graph
The disjoint union of Causal Path and CausalSystem classes.
The class of individuals representing causally selfconnected world entities.
A causal structure expresses itself in time and space thanks to the underlying causality relations between its constituent quantum entities. It must at least provide two temporal parts. The unity criterion beyond the definition of a causal structure (the most general concept of structure) is the existence of an undirected causal path between each of its parts.
T0 L0 M+1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
MassTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassTemperature'.
MassTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassTemperature'.
Conventional
A 'Sign' that stands for an 'Object' through convention, norm or habit, without any resemblance to it.
In Peirce semiotics this kind of sign category is called symbol. However, since symbol is also used in formal languages, the name is changed in conventional.
Conventional
A 'Sign' that stands for an 'Object' through convention, norm or habit, without any resemblance to it.
CausalPath
A causal chain is an ordered causal sequence of entities that does not host any bifurcation within itself (a chain). A chain can only be partitioned in time.
The causal path class can be defined univocally in FOL.
The class of entities that possess a temporal structure but no spatial structure.
CausalChain
Elementary
An electron with at least one causal interaction with another particle.
CausalPath
A causal chain is an ordered causal sequence of entities that does not host any bifurcation within itself (a chain). A chain can only be partitioned in time.
The class of entities that possess a temporal structure but no spatial structure.
The causal path class can be defined univocally in FOL.
Nailing
Nailing is joining by hammering or pressing nails (wire pins) as auxiliary parts into the solid material. Several parts are joined by pressing them together (from: DIN 8593 part 3/09.85).
Nageln
Nailing
DrawForms
DrawForms
FormingFromPlastic
FormingFromPlastic
1.0
0.0
NewtonPerCubicMetre
Newton per cubic metre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
NewtonPerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NPERM3
N.m3
N/m³
Newton per cubic metre.
T2 L2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MassPerSquareLengthSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerSquareLengthSquareTime'.
MassPerSquareLengthSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerSquareLengthSquareTime'.
DisplacementVector
In condensed matter physics, position vector of an atom or ion relative to its equilibrium position.
DisplacementVector
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DisplacementVectorOfIon
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105533558
127.3
In condensed matter physics, position vector of an atom or ion relative to its equilibrium position.
Displacement
vector quantity between any two points in space
Displacement
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Displacement
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q190291
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130129
https://dbpedia.org/page/Displacement_(geometry)
31.11
vector quantity between any two points in space
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Displacement_(geometry)
Sign
A 'Sign' can have temporaldirectparts which are 'Sign' themselves.
A 'Sign' usually havs 'sign' spatial direct parts only up to a certain elementary semiotic level, in which the part is only a 'Physical' and no more a 'Sign' (i.e. it stands for nothing). This elementary semiotic level is peculiar to each particular system of signs (e.g. text, painting).
Just like an 'Elementary' in the 'Physical' branch, each 'Sign' branch should have an atomistic mereological part.
According to Peirce, 'Sign' includes three subcategories:
 symbols: that stand for an object through convention
 indeces: that stand for an object due to causal continguity
 icons: that stand for an object due to similitudes e.g. in shape or composition
An 'Physical' that is used as sign ("semeion" in greek) that stands for another 'Physical' through an semiotic process.
A novel is made of chapters, paragraphs, sentences, words and characters (in a direct parthood mereological hierarchy).
Each of them are 'sign's.
A character can be the atomistic 'sign' for the class of texts.
The horizontal segment in the character "A" is direct part of "A" but it is not a 'sign' itself.
For plain text we can propose the ASCII symbols, for math the fundamental math symbols.
Sign
An 'Physical' that is used as sign ("semeion" in greek) that stands for another 'Physical' through an semiotic process.
Bh
BohriumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the bohrium atom.
BohriumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the bohrium atom.
0.001
0.0
CubicDeciMetrePerMole
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit mol
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Decimetre Per Mole
CubicDeciMetrePerMole
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERMOL
dm3.mol1
dm3/mol
dm³/mol
0,001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit mol
 QUDT
T0 L+3 M0 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
VolumePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerAmount'.
VolumePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerAmount'.
Item
The concept of selfconnectivity is applied using a 4D approach. Given that, the entity made of an electron and a proton that travel, interact, and then depart from each other is an item, since we don't focus only on the beginning or the end stage but to the overall 4D entity, being the interaction the connectivity bridge between the two particles.
A world entity is direct causally selfconnected if any two parts that make up the whole are direct causally connected to each other. In the EMMO, topological connectivity is based on causality.
All physical objects, i.e. entities whose behaviour is explained by physics laws, are represented only by items. In other words, a physical object part is embedded in a direct causal graph that provides always a path between two of its parts.
Members of a collection lack such direct causality connection, i.e. they do not constitute a physical object.
Following graph theory concepts, the quantums of an item are all connected together within a network of causal relations, forming a connected causal graph. A collection is then a set of disconnected graphs.
The class of individuals standing for quantum or causally selfconnected world entities.
The disjoint union of Particle and CausalStructure classes.
CausalObject
A person life, an interval of a person life. The lifetime of two components, from the production in separate manufacturing lines, their being connected components in a device, including their eparation and decommissioning.
Item
A world entity is direct causally selfconnected if any two parts that make up the whole are direct causally connected to each other. In the EMMO, topological connectivity is based on causality.
All physical objects, i.e. entities whose behaviour is explained by physics laws, are represented only by items. In other words, a physical object part is embedded in a direct causal graph that provides always a path between two of its parts.
Members of a collection lack such direct causality connection, i.e. they do not constitute a physical object.
Following graph theory concepts, the quantums of an item are all connected together within a network of causal relations, forming a connected causal graph. A collection is then a set of disconnected graphs.
The disjoint union of Particle and CausalStructure classes.
The class of individuals standing for quantum or causally selfconnected world entities.
The concept of selfconnectivity is applied using a 4D approach. Given that, the entity made of an electron and a proton that travel, interact, and then depart from each other is an item, since we don't focus only on the beginning or the end stage but to the overall 4D entity, being the interaction the connectivity bridge between the two particles.
TemporalTile
A direct part that is obtained by partitioning a whole purely in temporal parts.
TemporalTile
A direct part that is obtained by partitioning a whole purely in temporal parts.
293.204
116
LivermoriumAtom
Atom subclass for livermorium.
LivermoriumAtom
Atom subclass for livermorium.
Symbol
Subclasses of 'Symbol' are alphabets, in formal languages terminology. A 'Symbol' is atomic for that alphabet, i.e. it has no parts that are symbols for the same alphabet.
e.g. a math symbol is not made of other math symbols
A Symbol may be a String in another language.
e.g. "Bq" is the symbol for Becquerel units when dealing with metrology, or a string of "B" and "q" symbols when dealing with characters.
The class of individuals that stand for an elementary mark of a specific symbolic code (alphabet).
AlphabeticEntity
The class of letter "A" is the symbol as idea and the letter A that you see on the screen is the mark that can be represented by an individual belonging to "A".
Symbol
The class of individuals that stand for an elementary mark of a specific symbolic code (alphabet).
Subclasses of 'Symbol' are alphabets, in formal languages terminology. A 'Symbol' is atomic for that alphabet, i.e. it has no parts that are symbols for the same alphabet.
e.g. a math symbol is not made of other math symbols
A Symbol may be a String in another language.
e.g. "Bq" is the symbol for Becquerel units when dealing with metrology, or a string of "B" and "q" symbols when dealing with characters.
Symbols of a formal language need not be symbols of anything. For instance there are logical constants which do not refer to any idea, but rather serve as a form of punctuation in the language (e.g. parentheses).
Symbols of a formal language must be capable of being specified without any reference to any interpretation of them.
(Wikipedia)
The class is the idea of the symbol, while the individual of that class stands for a specific mark (or token) of that idea.
MagneticPolarisation
Vector quantity equal to the product of the magnetization M and the magnetic constant μ0.
MagneticPolarisation
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticPolarization
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q856711
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211154
629
Vector quantity equal to the product of the magnetization M and the magnetic constant μ0.
MagneticFluxDensity
Often denoted B.
Strength of the magnetic field.
MagneticInduction
MagneticFluxDensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFluxDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q30204
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211119
621
Strength of the magnetic field.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03686
100.0
0.0
VoltPerCentiMetre
derived SI unit volt divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Volt Per Centimetre
VoltPerCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/VPERCentiM
V.cm1
V/cm
derived SI unit volt divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
MathematicalModel
A mathematical model can be defined as a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language to facilitate proper explanation of a system or to study the effects of different components and to make predictions on patterns of behaviour.
Abramowitz and Stegun, 1968
An analogical icon expressed in mathematical language.
MathematicalModel
An analogical icon expressed in mathematical language.
AnalogicalIcon
An icon that focus on HOW the object works.
An icon that represents the internal logical structure of the object.
A physics equation is replicating the mechanisms internal to the object.
Electrical diagram is diagrammatic and resemblance
MODA and CHADA are diagrammatic representation of a simulation or a characterisation workflow.
AnalogicalIcon
An icon that represents the internal logical structure of the object.
An icon that focus on HOW the object works.
The subclass of icon inspired by Peirceian category (b) the diagram, whose internal relations, mainly dyadic or so taken, represent by analogy (with the same logic) the relations in something (e.g. math formula, geometric flowchart).
Mathematical
A mathematical object in this branch is not representing a concept but an actual graphical object built using mathematcal symbols arranged in some way, according to math conventions.
The class of general mathematical symbolic objects respecting mathematical syntactic rules.
Mathematical
The class of general mathematical symbolic objects respecting mathematical syntactic rules.
A mathematical object in this branch is not representing a concept but an actual graphical object built using mathematcal symbols arranged in some way, according to math conventions.
0.0
1000000.0
CoulombPerCubicCentiMetre
derived SI unit coulomb divided by the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 3
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Coulomb Per Cubic Centimetre
CoulombPerCubicCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CPERCentiM3
C.cm3
C/cm3
C/cm³
derived SI unit coulomb divided by the 0.000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 3
 QUDT
T+1 L3 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricChargeDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargeDensity'.
ElectricChargeDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargeDensity'.
DoseEquivalentRate
Time derivative of the dose equivalent.
DoseEquivalentRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99604810
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811402
1083.2
Time derivative of the dose equivalent.
AbsorbedDoseRate
Differential quotient of the absorbed dose with respect to time.
AbsorbedDoseRate
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AbsorbedDoseRate
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q69428958
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8811207
1084
Differential quotient of the absorbed dose with respect to time.
AdditiveManufacturing
process of joining materials to make parts from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing (3.1.29) and formative manufacturing methodologies,
GenerativeManufacturing
AdditiveManufacturing
process of joining materials to make parts from 3D model data, usually layer upon layer, as opposed to subtractive manufacturing (3.1.29) and formative manufacturing methodologies,
FromNotProperShapeToWorkPiece
From Powder, from liquid, from gas
da una forma non propria ad una forma propria
FromNotProperShapeToWorkPiece
From Powder, from liquid, from gas
Powder:
particles that are usually less than 1 mm in size
Kr
KryptonSymbol
The symbol that stands for the krypton atom.
KryptonSymbol
The symbol that stands for the krypton atom.
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
PerTemperatureTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTemperatureTime'.
PerTemperatureTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTemperatureTime'.
0.0001
0.0
SquareCentiMetreSecond
"Square Centimeter Second" is a C.G.S System unit for 'Area Time' expressed as cm² . s.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Square Centimetre Second
SquareCentiMetreSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2SEC
cm2.s
cm²⋅s
"Square Centimeter Second" is a C.G.S System unit for 'Area Time' expressed as cm² . s.
 QUDT
T+1 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaTime'.
AreaTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaTime'.
Ruby
Ruby
ScriptingLanguage
A programming language that is executed through runtime interpretation.
ScriptingLanguage
A programming language that is executed through runtime interpretation.
1.602177e19
0.0
ElectronVoltPerTesla
"Electron Volt per Tesla" is a unit for 'Magnetic Dipole Moment' expressed as eV T⁻¹.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Electron Volt per Tesla
ElectronVoltPerTesla
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/EVPERT
eV.T1
eV/T
eV/T
"Electron Volt per Tesla" is a unit for 'Magnetic Dipole Moment' expressed as eV T⁻¹.
 QUDT
NonSIUnit
Measurement units that are not SI units.
NonSIUnit
Measurement units that are not SI units.
T0 L+2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
MagneticDipoleMomentUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticDipoleMoment'.
MagneticDipoleMomentUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticDipoleMoment'.
Point
A zeromanifold of only one point.
Point
A zeromanifold of only one point.
ZeroManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 0dimensional Euclidean space.
0manifold
ZeroManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 0dimensional Euclidean space.
AlphaDisintegrationEnergy
Sum of the kinetic energy of the αparticle produced in the disintegration process and the recoil energy of the product atom in a reference frame in which the emitting nucleus is at rest before its disintegration.
AlphaDisintegrationEnergy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AlphaDisintegrationEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98146025
1032
Sum of the kinetic energy of the αparticle produced in the disintegration process and the recoil energy of the product atom in a reference frame in which the emitting nucleus is at rest before its disintegration.
Energy
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms.
Energy is often defined as "ability of a system to perform work", but it might be misleading since is not necessarily available to do work.
Energy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Energy
5201
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
Product
The overall lifetime of an holistic that has been the output of an intentional process.
This concepts encompass the overall lifetime of a product.
Is temporaly fundamental, meaning that it can have other products as holistic spatial parts, but its holistic temporal parts are not products. In other words, the individual must encompass the whole lifetime from creation to disposal.
A product can be a tangible object (e.g. a manufactured object), a process (e.g. service). It can be the outcome of a natural or an artificially driven process.
It must have and initial stage of its life that is also an outcome of a intentional process.
Output
Product
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:9000:ed3:v1:en:term:3.4.2
https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:iso:14040:ed2:v1:en:term:3.9
The overall lifetime of an holistic that has been the output of an intentional process.
This concepts encompass the overall lifetime of a product.
Is temporaly fundamental, meaning that it can have other products as holistic spatial parts, but its holistic temporal parts are not products. In other words, the individual must encompass the whole lifetime from creation to disposal.
A product can be a tangible object (e.g. a manufactured object), a process (e.g. service). It can be the outcome of a natural or an artificially driven process.
It must have and initial stage of its life that is also an outcome of a intentional process.
SpatialTile
A direct part that is obtained by partitioning a whole purely in spatial parts.
SpatialTile
A direct part that is obtained by partitioning a whole purely in spatial parts.
1
1.008
HydrogenAtom
Atom subclass for hydrogen.
HydrogenAtom
Atom subclass for hydrogen.
1.660539e27
Da
0.0
Dalton
One dalton is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state.
The unified atomic mass unit (symbol: μ) or dalton (symbol: Da) is a unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale. It is defined as one twelfth of the rest mass of an unbound atom of carbon12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state, and has a value of 1.660538782(83) × 10⁻²⁷ kg. One Da is approximately equal to the mass of one proton or one neutron. The CIPM have categorised it as a "nonSI unit whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally".
 QUDT
Dalton
D43
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/Da
u
http://dbpedia.org/page/Unified_atomic_mass_unit
One dalton is defined as one twelfth of the mass of an unbound neutral atom of carbon12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state.
The unified atomic mass unit (symbol: μ) or dalton (symbol: Da) is a unit that is used for indicating mass on an atomic or molecular scale. It is defined as one twelfth of the rest mass of an unbound atom of carbon12 in its nuclear and electronic ground state, and has a value of 1.660538782(83) × 10⁻²⁷ kg. One Da is approximately equal to the mass of one proton or one neutron. The CIPM have categorised it as a "nonSI unit whose values in SI units must be obtained experimentally".
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_mass_unit
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01514
Deducer
An interpreter who establish the connection between an index sign and an object according to a causal contiguity.
Someone who deduces an emotional status of a persona according to facial expression.
Someone who deduces the occurring of a physical phenomenon through other phenomena.
Deducer
An interpreter who establish the connection between an index sign and an object according to a causal contiguity.
PeriodDuration
duration of one cycle of a periodic event
Period
PeriodDuration
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Period
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2642727
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030601
314
duration of one cycle of a periodic event
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04493
HallCoefficient
The relation between electric field strength and current density in an isotropic conductor.
HallCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HallCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q997439
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=5210902
1219
The relation between electric field strength and current density in an isotropic conductor.
ParticleFluence
Differential quotient of N with respect to a, where N is the number of particles incident on a sphere of crosssectional area a.
ParticleFluence
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ParticleFluence
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q82965908
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950115
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=8810418
1043
Differential quotient of N with respect to a, where N is the number of particles incident on a sphere of crosssectional area a.
T0 L3 M0 I+1 Θ0 N1 J0
ElectricCurrentPerAmountVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentPerAmountVolume'.
ElectricCurrentPerAmountVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentPerAmountVolume'.
Namer
An interpreter who assigns a name to an object without any motivations related to the object characters.
Namer
An interpreter who assigns a name to an object without any motivations related to the object characters.
0.0
1.0
KelvinMetrePerWatt
product of the SI base unit kelvin and the SI base unit metre divided by the derived SI unit watt
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Kelvin Metre Per Watt
KelvinMetrePerWatt
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KMPERW
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MKPERW
K.m.W1
K⋅m/W
product of the SI base unit kelvin and the SI base unit metre divided by the derived SI unit watt
 QUDT
T+3 L1 M1 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
ThermalResistivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalResistivity'.
ThermalResistivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalResistivity'.
1.0
0.0
WattPerSquareMetreSteradian
`Watt per steradian per square metre` is the SI unit of radiance (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²), while that of spectral radiance in frequency is the watt per steradian per square metre per hertz (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²·Hz⁻¹) and that of spectral radiance in wavelength is the watt per steradian per square metre, per metre (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻³), commonly the watt per steradian per square metre per nanometre (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²·nm⁻¹). It has a dimension of ML⁻⁴T⁻³ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsradiancewatt_per_square_meter_per_steradian.cfm
Watt per Square Metre Steradian
WattPerSquareMetreSteradian
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2SR
W.m2.sr1
W/(m²⋅sr)
`Watt per steradian per square metre` is the SI unit of radiance (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²), while that of spectral radiance in frequency is the watt per steradian per square metre per hertz (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²·Hz⁻¹) and that of spectral radiance in wavelength is the watt per steradian per square metre, per metre (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻³), commonly the watt per steradian per square metre per nanometre (W·sr⁻¹·m⁻²·nm⁻¹). It has a dimension of ML⁻⁴T⁻³ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiance
T3 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PowerDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PowerDensity'.
PowerDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PowerDensity'.
1.0
0.0
PerCubicMetreSecond
Per cubic metre and second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
PerCubicMetreSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERM3SEC
m3.s1
/(m³⋅s)
Per cubic metre and second.
T1 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
FrequencyPerVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'FrequencyPerVolume'.
FrequencyPerVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'FrequencyPerVolume'.
0.0
0.0001
MicroSiemensPerCentiMetre
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit Siemens divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Microsiemens Per Centimetre
MicroSiemensPerCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroSPERCentiM
uS.cm1
μS/cm
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit Siemens divided by the 0.01fold of the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
T+3 L3 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricConductivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricConductivity'.
ElectricConductivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricConductivity'.
1.0
0.0
KelvinPerKelvin
SI base unit kelvin divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Kelvin Per Kelvin
KelvinPerKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERK
K.K1
K/K
SI base unit kelvin divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
EmpiricalSimulationSoftware
A computational application that uses an empiric equation to predict the behaviour of a system without relying on the knowledge of the actual physical phenomena occurring in the object.
EmpiricalSimulationSoftware
A computational application that uses an empiric equation to predict the behaviour of a system without relying on the knowledge of the actual physical phenomena occurring in the object.
SimulationApplication
An application aimed to functionally reproduce an object.
An application that predicts the pressure drop of a fluid in a pipe segment is aimed to functionally reproduce the outcome of a measurement of pressure before and after the segment.
SimulationApplication
An application aimed to functionally reproduce an object.
MeanFreePathOfPhonons
average distance that phonons travel between two successive interactions
MeanFreePathOfPhonons
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PhononMeanFreePath
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105672255
1215.1
average distance that phonons travel between two successive interactions
MeanFreePath
The mean free path may thus be specified either for all interactions, i.e. total mean free path, or for particular types of interaction such as scattering, capture, or ionization.
in a given medium, average distance that particles of a specified type travel between successive interactions of a specified type.
MeanFreePath
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MeanFreePath
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q756307
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130637
938
in a given medium, average distance that particles of a specified type travel between successive interactions of a specified type.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03778
T1 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaPerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerTime'.
AreaPerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerTime'.
54
131.293
XenonAtom
Atom subclass for xenon.
XenonAtom
Atom subclass for xenon.
Ru
RutheniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the ruthenium atom.
RutheniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the ruthenium atom.
1.0
0.0
SquarePascalPerSquareSecond
Square Pascal per square second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquarePascalPerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PA2PERSEC2
Pa2.s2
Pa²/s²
Square Pascal per square second.
T6 L2 M+2 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SquarePressurePerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquarePressurePerSquareTime'.
SquarePressurePerSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquarePressurePerSquareTime'.
ExactConstant
Physical constant used to define a unit system. Hence, when expressed in that unit system they have an exact value with no associated uncertainty.
ExactConstant
Physical constant used to define a unit system. Hence, when expressed in that unit system they have an exact value with no associated uncertainty.
PhysicalConstant
Physical constants are categorised into "exact" and measured constants.
With "exact" constants, we refer to physical constants that have an exact numerical value after the revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019.
PhysicalConstant
Physical constants are categorised into "exact" and measured constants.
With "exact" constants, we refer to physical constants that have an exact numerical value after the revision of the SI system that was enforsed May 2019.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_physical_constants
N
Newton
SI unit for force.
The "Newton" is the SI unit of force. A force of one newton will accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. The newton is named for Isaac Newton (16421727), the British mathematician, physicist, and natural philosopher. He was the first person to understand clearly the relationship between force (F), mass (m), and acceleration (a) expressed by the formula F = m·a.
 QUDT
Newton
NEW
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/N
N
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Newton
SI unit for force.
The "Newton" is the SI unit of force. A force of one newton will accelerate a mass of one kilogram at the rate of one meter per second per second. The newton is named for Isaac Newton (16421727), the British mathematician, physicist, and natural philosopher. He was the first person to understand clearly the relationship between force (F), mass (m), and acceleration (a) expressed by the formula F = m·a.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton?oldid=488427661
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04135
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ForceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Force'.
ForceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Force'.
Property
A coded that makes use of an atomic symbol with respect to the code used to refer to the interaction.
A property is atomic in the sense that is aimed to deliver one and one only aspect of the object according to one code, such as the color with one sign (e.g., black) or a quantitiative property (e.g., 1.4 kg).
Hardness is a subclass of properties.
Vickers hardness is a subclass of hardness that involves the procedures and instruments defined by the standard hardness test.
The name "red" which is atomic in the code made of the list of colors.
Property
A coded that makes use of an atomic symbol with respect to the code used to refer to the interaction.
A property is atomic in the sense that is aimed to deliver one and one only aspect of the object according to one code, such as the color with one sign (e.g., black) or a quantitiative property (e.g., 1.4 kg).
Coded
A conventional referring to an object according to a specific code that reflects the results of a specific interaction mechanism and is shared between other interpreters.
A coded is always a partial representation of an object since it reflects the object capability to be part of a specific determination.
A coded is a sort of name or label that we put upon objects that interact with an determiner in the same specific way.
For example, "hot" objects are objects that interact with an observer through a perception mechanism aimed to perceive an heat source. The code is made of terms such as "hot", "warm", "cold", that commonly refer to the perception of heat.
A conventional that stands for an object according to a code of interpretation to which the interpreter refers.
Let's define the class Colour as the subclass of the coded signs that involve photon emission and electromagnetic radiation sensible observers.
An individual C of this class Colour can be defined be declaring the process individual (e.g. daylight illumination) and the observer (e.g. my eyes)
Stating that an entity E hasCoded C, we mean that it can be observed by such setup of process + observer (i.e. observed by my eyes under daylight).
This definition can be specialised for human eye perception, so that the observer can be a generic human, or to camera perception so that the observer can be a device.
This can be used in material characterization, to define exactly the type of measurement done, including the instrument type.
A biography that makes use of a code that is provided by the meaning of the element of the language used by the author.
The name "red" that stands for the color of an object.
Coded
A conventional that stands for an object according to a code of interpretation to which the interpreter refers.
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MagneticReluctivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticReluctivity'.
MagneticReluctivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticReluctivity'.
Extensive
A quantity whose magnitude is additive for subsystems.
Note that not all physical quantities can be categorised as being either intensive or extensive. For example the square root of the mass.
Mass
Volume
Entropy
Extensive
A quantity whose magnitude is additive for subsystems.
ISQBaseQuantity
Base quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
ISQBaseQuantity
Base quantities defined in the International System of Quantities (ISQ).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Quantities
1.0
0.0
MolePerSecond
SI base unit mol divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Mole Per Second
MolePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERSEC
mol.s1
mol/s
mol/s
SI base unit mol divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
CatalyticActivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CatalyticActivity'.
CatalyticActivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CatalyticActivity'.
Icon
A sign that stands for an object by resembling or imitating it, in shape, function or by sharing a similar logical structure.
If object and sign belongs to the same class, then the sign is fuctional, diagrammatic and resemblance.
For example, when a Boeing 747 is used as a sign for another Boeing 747.
In Peirce semiotics three subtypes of icon are possible:
(a) the image, which depends on a simple quality (e.g. picture)
(b) the diagram, whose internal relations, mainly dyadic or so taken, represent by analogy the relations in something (e.g. math formula, geometric flowchart)
(c) the metaphor, which represents the representative character of a sign by representing a parallelism in something else
[Wikipedia]
Model
Simulacrum
A picture that reproduces the aspect of a person.
An equation that reproduces the logical connection of the properties of a physical entity.
Icon
A sign that stands for an object by resembling or imitating it, in shape, function or by sharing a similar logical structure.
91
231.03588
ProtactiniumAtom
Atom subclass for protactinium.
ProtactiniumAtom
Atom subclass for protactinium.
T+2 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MassSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassSquareTime'.
MassSquareTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassSquareTime'.
T2 L1 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
PressurePerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PressurePerTemperature'.
PressurePerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PressurePerTemperature'.
0.0
1.0
BecquerelPerCubicMetre
The SI derived unit of unit in the category of Radioactivity concentration.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsradioactivity_concentrationbecquerel_per_cubic_meter.cfm
Becquerel per Cubic Metre
BecquerelPerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQPERM3
Bq.m3
Bq/m3
Bq/m³
The SI derived unit of unit in the category of Radioactivity concentration.
 QUDT
0.0
1000.0
SquareMetrePerGram
A unit in the category of specific area.
SquareMetrePerGram
A unit in the category of specific area.
T0 L+2 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreaPerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerMass'.
AreaPerMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreaPerMass'.
Ra
RadiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the radium atom.
RadiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the radium atom.
0.0
min
60.0
Minute
A minute is a unit of measurement of time. The minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60 (the first sexagesimal fraction of an hour or 60 seconds. In the UTC time scale, a minute on rare occasions has 59 or 61 seconds; see leap second. The minute is not an SI unit; however, it is accepted for use with SI units. The SI symbol for minute or minutes is min (for time measurement) or the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5' (for angle measurement, even if it is informally used for time).
 QUDT
NonSI time unit defined as 60 seconds.
Minute
MIN
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MIN
min
http://dbpedia.org/page/Minute
NonSI time unit defined as 60 seconds.
A minute is a unit of measurement of time. The minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60 (the first sexagesimal fraction of an hour or 60 seconds. In the UTC time scale, a minute on rare occasions has 59 or 61 seconds; see leap second. The minute is not an SI unit; however, it is accepted for use with SI units. The SI symbol for minute or minutes is min (for time measurement) or the prime symbol after a number, e.g. 5' (for angle measurement, even if it is informally used for time).
 QUDT
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TimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Time'.
TimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Time'.
CausalSystem
A causal system provides the most general concept of system, being a union of causal structures interacting together. In its most simple form, a causal system is an interlacement of causal paths (the most simple structure type).
A causal system is always a spatiallike structure, and is represented as a multiple topologically orderable direct acyclic graph, with quanta as nodes and causality relations as edges.
The class of individuals representing a causal system.
A electron binded by a nucleus.
CausalSystem
A causal system provides the most general concept of system, being a union of causal structures interacting together. In its most simple form, a causal system is an interlacement of causal paths (the most simple structure type).
A causal system is always a spatiallike structure, and is represented as a multiple topologically orderable direct acyclic graph, with quanta as nodes and causality relations as edges.
The class of individuals representing a causal system.
Wb
Weber
SI unit for magnetic flux.
The SI unit of magnetic flux. "Flux" is the rate (per unit of time) at which something crosses a surface perpendicular to the flow. The weber is a large unit, equal to 10⁸ maxwells, and practical fluxes are usually fractions of one weber. The weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A). The weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as the Teslasquare meter (T·m²), voltseconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).
Weber
WEB
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WB
Wb
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Weber
SI unit for magnetic flux.
The SI unit of magnetic flux. "Flux" is the rate (per unit of time) at which something crosses a surface perpendicular to the flow. The weber is a large unit, equal to 10⁸ maxwells, and practical fluxes are usually fractions of one weber. The weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, would produce in it an electromotive force of 1 volt if it were reduced to zero at a uniform rate in 1 second. In SI base units, the dimensions of the weber are (kg·m²)/(s²·A). The weber is commonly expressed in terms of other derived units as the Teslasquare meter (T·m²), voltseconds (V·s), or joules per ampere (J/A).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weber_(unit)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06666
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MagneticFluxUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticFlux'.
MagneticFluxUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticFlux'.
MaterialsModel
A solvable set of one Physics Equation and one or more Materials Relations.
https://op.europa.eu/en/publicationdetail//publication/ec1455c3d7ca11e6ad7c01aa75ed71a1
MaterialsModel
A solvable set of one Physics Equation and one or more Materials Relations.
PhaseDifference
Under sinusoidal conditions, phase difference between the voltage applied to a linear twoterminal element or twoterminal circuit and the electric current in the element or circuit.
DisplacementAngle
PhaseDifference
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97222919
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311148
648
Under sinusoidal conditions, phase difference between the voltage applied to a linear twoterminal element or twoterminal circuit and the electric current in the element or circuit.
Angle
Ratio of circular arc length to radius.
PlaneAngle
Angle
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PlaneAngle
35
Ratio of circular arc length to radius.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00346
Colloid
A mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles (from 1 nm to 1 μm) is suspended throughout another substance and that does not settle, or would take a very long time to settle appreciably.
Colloids are characterized by the occurring of the Tyndall effect on light.
Colloid
A mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble or soluble particles (from 1 nm to 1 μm) is suspended throughout another substance and that does not settle, or would take a very long time to settle appreciably.
Colloids are characterized by the occurring of the Tyndall effect on light.
Dispersion
A material in which distributed particles of one phase are dispersed in a different continuous phase.
Dispersion
A material in which distributed particles of one phase are dispersed in a different continuous phase.
PhaseHeterogeneousMixture
A mixture in which more than one phases of matter cohexists.
Phase heterogenous mixture may share the same state of matter.
For example, immiscibile liquid phases (e.g. oil and water) constitute a mixture whose phases are clearly separated but share the same state of matter.
PhaseHeterogeneousMixture
A mixture in which more than one phases of matter cohexists.
Phase heterogenous mixture may share the same state of matter.
For example, immiscibile liquid phases (e.g. oil and water) constitute a mixture whose phases are clearly separated but share the same state of matter.
DirectionAndEnergyDistributionOfCrossSection
Partial differential quotient of the cross section of a process with respect to the solid angle around a given direction and the energy of a particle scattered in that direction.
DirectionAndEnergyDistributionOfCrossSection
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SpectralAngularCrossSection
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98269571
1041
Partial differential quotient of the cross section of a process with respect to the solid angle around a given direction and the energy of a particle scattered in that direction.
Determination
A 'Semiosis' that involves an 'Observer' that perceives another 'Physical' (the 'Object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'Property' (the 'Sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception according to a well defined conventional procedure.
Characterisation
Assigning the word "red" as sign for an object provides an information to all other interpreters about the outcome of a specific observation procedure according to the determiner.
Determination
A 'Semiosis' that involves an 'Observer' that perceives another 'Physical' (the 'Object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'Property' (the 'Sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception according to a well defined conventional procedure.
MultiParticlePath
A chausal path whose quantum parts belongs to at least two different standard model fundamental types.
An multiparticle path is a causal path of quantum entities of different type, following the causal connection between an initial quantum up to the final one, regardless on the fact that causality is passing through elementary particles of different types.
For example, a path starting from an elementary photon, then through the electron with which it scatter, and then trough a positron with which the electron collides.
MultiParticlePath
An multiparticle path is a causal path of quantum entities of different type, following the causal connection between an initial quantum up to the final one, regardless on the fact that causality is passing through elementary particles of different types.
For example, a path starting from an elementary photon, then through the electron with which it scatter, and then trough a positron with which the electron collides.
A chausal path whose quantum parts belongs to at least two different standard model fundamental types.
1.0
0.0
NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpere
Newton metre squared per Ampere.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpere
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NM2PERA
N.m2.A1
N.m2/A
N⋅m²/A
Newton metre squared per Ampere.
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NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpereUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpere'.
NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpereUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'NewtonSquareMetrePerAmpere'.
Attenuation
Decrease in magnitude of any kind of flux through a medium.
Extinction
Attenuation
326.1
Decrease in magnitude of any kind of flux through a medium.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attenuation
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00515
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PowerPerAreaVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PowerPerAreaVolume'.
PowerPerAreaVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PowerPerAreaVolume'.
LossFactor
Inverse of the quality factor.
LossFactor
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LossFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q79468728
654
Inverse of the quality factor.
Cn
CoperniciumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the copernicium atom.
CoperniciumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the copernicium atom.
BaseQuantity
"Quantity in a conventionally chosen subset of a given system of quantities, where no quantity in the subset can be expressed in terms of the other quantities within that subset"
ISO 800001
BaseQuantity
"Quantity in a conventionally chosen subset of a given system of quantities, where no quantity in the subset can be expressed in terms of the other quantities within that subset"
ISO 800001
base quantity
1
1
QuantityValue
A quantity value is not necessarily a property, since it is possible to write "10 kg", without assigning this quantity to a specific object.
A symbolic that has parts a numerical object and a reference expressing the value of a quantity (expressed as the product of the numerical and the unit).
Following the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), EMMO distinguishes between a quantity (a property) and the quantity value (a numerical and a reference).
So, for the EMMO the symbol "kg" is not a physical quantity but simply a 'Symbolic' object categorized as a 'MeasurementUnit'.
While the string "1 kg" is a 'QuantityValue'.
6.8 m
0.9 km
8 K
6 MeV
43.5 HRC(150 kg)
QuantityValue
A symbolic that has parts a numerical object and a reference expressing the value of a quantity (expressed as the product of the numerical and the unit).
quantity value
A quantity value is not necessarily a property, since it is possible to write "10 kg", without assigning this quantity to a specific object.
MetrologicalConstruct
A symbolic construct used within the discipline of metrology.
MetrologicalConstruct
A symbolic construct used within the discipline of metrology.
Metrological
A language entity used in the metrology discipline.
Metrology is the science of measurement and its application and includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement, whatever the measurement uncertainty and field of application (VIM3 2.2)
Metrological
A language entity used in the metrology discipline.
Metrology is the science of measurement and its application and includes all theoretical and practical aspects of measurement, whatever the measurement uncertainty and field of application (VIM3 2.2)
MolarGibbsEnergy
Gibbs energy per amount of substance.
MolarGibbsEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q88863324
96.4
Gibbs energy per amount of substance.
MolarEnergy
Energy per amount of substance.
MolarEnergy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q69427512
Energy per amount of substance.
3600.0
0.0
RadianPerHour
"Radian per Hour" is a unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as rad/h.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Radian per Hour
RadianPerHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADPERHR
rad.h1
rad/h
rad/h
"Radian per Hour" is a unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as rad/h.
 QUDT
IUPACName
IUPACName
ChemicalName
ChemicalName
IUPACNomencalture
IUPACNomencalture
Numerical
A 'Mathematical' that has no unknown value, i.e. all its 'Variable"s parts refers to a 'Number' (for scalars that have a builtin datatype) or to another 'Numerical' (for complex numerical data structures that should rely on external implementations).
Numerical
A 'Mathematical' that has no unknown value, i.e. all its 'Variable"s parts refers to a 'Number' (for scalars that have a builtin datatype) or to another 'Numerical' (for complex numerical data structures that should rely on external implementations).
58.933194
27
CobaltAtom
Atom subclass for cobalt.
CobaltAtom
Atom subclass for cobalt.
CausalParticle
A causal particle represents the most elementary entity in physics, being it a simple state of an elementary particle, called quantum in the EMMO, or a chain of causally connected quanta.
The class of individuals representing causal particles.
The disjoint union of CausalPath and Quantum classes.
CausalParticle
A causal particle represents the most elementary entity in physics, being it a simple state of an elementary particle, called quantum in the EMMO, or a chain of causally connected quanta.
The disjoint union of CausalPath and Quantum classes.
The class of individuals representing causal particles.
T2 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
FrequencyPerAreaTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'FrequencyPerAreaTime'.
FrequencyPerAreaTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'FrequencyPerAreaTime'.
0.0
1.0
HertzPerKelvin
`Hertz per Kelvin` is a unit for 'Inverse Time Temperature' expressed as Hz K⁻¹.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Hertz per Kelvin
HertzPerKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZPERK
Hz.K1
Hz/K
`Hertz per Kelvin` is a unit for 'Inverse Time Temperature' expressed as Hz K⁻¹.
 QUDT
ReciprocalVolume
Physical quantity for measuring per volume.
ReciprocalVolume
Physical quantity for measuring per volume.
ShearForming
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by shear stress.
Schubumformen
ShearForming
ReshapeManufacturing
A manufacturing in which workpieces are produced from solid raw parts through permanent deformation, provided that neither material is added nor removed.
The mass of the raw part is equal to the mass of the finished part.
DIN 8580:2020
Umformen
Forming
ReshapeManufacturing
A manufacturing in which workpieces are produced from solid raw parts through permanent deformation, provided that neither material is added nor removed.
The mass of the raw part is equal to the mass of the finished part.
0.1047198
0.0
RevolutionPerMinute
"Revolution per Minute" is a unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as rev/min.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Revolution per Minute
RevolutionPerMinute
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/REVPERMIN
{#}.min1
rev/min
"Revolution per Minute" is a unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as rev/min.
 QUDT
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
PerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTemperature'.
PerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerTemperature'.
JoulePerQuarticMetre
`Joule Per Quartic Meter` (J/m⁴) is a unit for the spectral concentration of radiant energy density (in terms of wavelength), or the spectral radiant energy density (in terms of wave length). This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Joule per Quartic Metre
JoulePerQuarticMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERM4
J.m4
J/m⁴
`Joule Per Quartic Meter` (J/m⁴) is a unit for the spectral concentration of radiant energy density (in terms of wavelength), or the spectral radiant energy density (in terms of wave length). This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system.
 QUDT
0.001
0.0
L
Litre
A nonSI unit of volume defined as 1 cubic decimetre (dm3),
Other used symbols for litre are "l" and "ℓ".
The litre (American spelling: `liter`; SI symbol l or L) is a nonSI metric system unit of volume equal to 1 `cubic decimetre` (dm³), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm³) or 1/1000 `cubic metre`. If the lower case "L" is used as the symbol, it is sometimes rendered as a cursive "l" to help distinguish it from the capital "I", although this usage has no official approval by any international bureau.
 QUDT
liter
Litre
B51
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/L
L
l
A nonSI unit of volume defined as 1 cubic decimetre (dm3),
The litre (American spelling: `liter`; SI symbol l or L) is a nonSI metric system unit of volume equal to 1 `cubic decimetre` (dm³), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm³) or 1/1000 `cubic metre`. If the lower case "L" is used as the symbol, it is sometimes rendered as a cursive "l" to help distinguish it from the capital "I", although this usage has no official approval by any international bureau.
 QUDT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03594
PhysicalPhenomenon
The class of individuals standing for causally nonconvex interacting systems.
PhysicalPhenomenon
The class of individuals standing for causally nonconvex interacting systems.
Process
A process can be defined only according to an entity type. The minimum process is an entity made of two entities of different types that are temporally related.
The superclass for causal structure classes whose individuals have some temporal item parts that are not of the same type of the whole.
Occurrent
Perdurant
Practically speaking, the Process class can be populated by primitive subclasses (e.g. Cooking) for each of which holds the axiom that not all the item temporal parts are of the same type of the whole (e.g. breaking an egg, which is not necessarily a cooking process) and there are at least two temporal item parts of different types (e.g. breaking and egg and turning on the stove).
The intended usage is not for an individual to belong directly to Process, but to belong to a specific subclass of Process that identifies entities with a specific nontypepersistent structure.
Process
The superclass for causal structure classes whose individuals have some temporal item parts that are not of the same type of the whole.
A process can be defined only according to an entity type. The minimum process is an entity made of two entities of different types that are temporally related.
Following the common definition of process, the reader may think that every entity in the EMMO should be a process, since every 4D entity0 always has a time dimension. However, in the EMMO we restrict the concept of process to items whose temporal parts show a change in type (i.e. every 4D object unfolds in time, but not every 4D time unfolding may be of interest for the ontologist and categorized as a process).
The definition of every specific process subclass requires a reference type, that is expressed by some but not all temporal parts.
GasSolidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of solid in a gas continuum phase.
Dust, sand storm.
GasSolidSuspension
A coarse dispersion of solid in a gas continuum phase.
Gas
Gas is a compressible fluid, a state of matter that has no fixed shape and no fixed volume.
Gas
Gas is a compressible fluid, a state of matter that has no fixed shape and no fixed volume.
GasMixture
GasMixture
Suspension
An heterogeneous mixture that contains coarsly dispersed particles (no Tyndall effect), that generally tend to separate in time to the dispersion medium phase.
Suspensions show no significant effect on light.
Suspension
An heterogeneous mixture that contains coarsly dispersed particles (no Tyndall effect), that generally tend to separate in time to the dispersion medium phase.
1e06
0.0
MicroNewton
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit newton
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MicroNewton
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroN
uN
μN
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit newton
 QUDT
FormingFromPowder
FormingFromPowder
DragCoefficient
Dimensionless parameter to quantify fluid resistance.
DragFactor
DragCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DragCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1778961
423.4
Dimensionless parameter to quantify fluid resistance.
PseudoscalarMeson
A meson with spin zero and odd parity.
PseudoscalarMeson
A meson with spin zero and odd parity.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudoscalar_meson
Meson
Hadronic subatomic particles composed of an equal number of quarks and antiquarks bound together by strong interactions.
Most mesons are composed of one quark and one antiquark.
Meson
Hadronic subatomic particles composed of an equal number of quarks and antiquarks bound together by strong interactions.
Most mesons are composed of one quark and one antiquark.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meson
CoefficientOfThermalExpansion
Material property which describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature.
ThermalExpansionCoefficient
CoefficientOfThermalExpansion
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q45760
Material property which describes how the size of an object changes with a change in temperature.
0.0
1.0
WattPerMetreKelvin
Watt per metre and Kelvin unit.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
WattPerMetreKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERMK
W.m1.K1
W/(m⋅K)
Watt per metre and Kelvin unit.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_conductivity
T3 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
ThermalConductivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalConductivity'.
ThermalConductivityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ThermalConductivity'.
ActivityOfSolvent
For a solvent in a solution, quotient of the absolute activity and that of the pure substance at the same temperature and pressure.
ActivityOfSolvent
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89486193
927.1
For a solvent in a solution, quotient of the absolute activity and that of the pure substance at the same temperature and pressure.
IsothermalCompressibility
Quantity characterising the relative variation of volume with pressure at constant thermodynamic temperature.
IsothermalCompressibility
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/IsothermalCompressibility
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2990696
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130431
55.1
Quantity characterising the relative variation of volume with pressure at constant thermodynamic temperature.
Compressibility
Measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure change.
Compressibility
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Compressibility
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q8067817
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130370
420
Measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure change.
T+1 L0 M0 I+1 Θ0 N1 J0
ElectricChargePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargePerAmount'.
ElectricChargePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargePerAmount'.
T3 L0 M+1 I0 Θ4 N0 J0
MassPerCubicTimeQuarticTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerCubicTimeQuarticTemperature'.
MassPerCubicTimeQuarticTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerCubicTimeQuarticTemperature'.
0.0
1.0
Np
Neper
The neper is a logarithmic unit for ratios of measurements of physical field and power quantities, such as gain and loss of electronic signals. It has the unit symbol Np. The unit's name is derived from the name of John Napier, the inventor of logarithms. As is the case for the decibel and bel, the neper is not a unit in the International System of Units (SI), but it is accepted for use alongside the SI. Like the decibel, the neper is a unit in a logarithmic scale. While the bel uses the decadic (base10) logarithm to compute ratios, the neper uses the natural logarithm, based on Euler's number
 QUDT
Unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference, which are defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of power or fieldtype quantities.
The value of a ratio in nepers is given by `ln(x1/x2)` where `x1` and `x2` are the values of interest (amplitudes), and ln is the natural logarithm. When the values are quadratic in the amplitude (e.g. power), they are first linearised by taking the square root before the logarithm is taken, or equivalently the result is halved.
Wikipedia
Neper
C50
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NP
Np
http://dbpedia.org/page/Neper
Unit of measurement for quantities of type level or level difference, which are defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of power or fieldtype quantities.
The value of a ratio in nepers is given by `ln(x1/x2)` where `x1` and `x2` are the values of interest (amplitudes), and ln is the natural logarithm. When the values are quadratic in the amplitude (e.g. power), they are first linearised by taking the square root before the logarithm is taken, or equivalently the result is halved.
Wikipedia
The neper is a logarithmic unit for ratios of measurements of physical field and power quantities, such as gain and loss of electronic signals. It has the unit symbol Np. The unit's name is derived from the name of John Napier, the inventor of logarithms. As is the case for the decibel and bel, the neper is not a unit in the International System of Units (SI), but it is accepted for use alongside the SI. Like the decibel, the neper is a unit in a logarithmic scale. While the bel uses the decadic (base10) logarithm to compute ratios, the neper uses the natural logarithm, based on Euler's number
 QUDT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neper
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04106
LogarithmicUnit
A logarithmic unit is a unit that can be used to express a quantity (physical or mathematical) on a logarithmic scale, that is, as being proportional to the value of a logarithm function applied to the ratio of the quantity and a reference quantity of the same type.
Note that logarithmic units like decibel or neper are not univocally defines, since their definition depends on whether they are used to measure a "power" or a "rootpower" quantity.
It is advisory to create a uniquely defined subclass these units for concrete usage.
Decibel
LogarithmicUnit
http://qudt.org/schema/qudt/LogarithmicUnit
A logarithmic unit is a unit that can be used to express a quantity (physical or mathematical) on a logarithmic scale, that is, as being proportional to the value of a logarithm function applied to the ratio of the quantity and a reference quantity of the same type.
Note that logarithmic units like decibel or neper are not univocally defines, since their definition depends on whether they are used to measure a "power" or a "rootpower" quantity.
It is advisory to create a uniquely defined subclass these units for concrete usage.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logarithmic_scale#Logarithmic_units
FiberboardManufacturing
FiberboardManufacturing
54.938044
25
ManganeseAtom
Atom subclass for manganese.
ManganeseAtom
Atom subclass for manganese.
ElectricFlux
Scalar quantity equal to the flux of the electric flux density D through a given directed surface S.
ElectricFlux
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricFlux
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q501267
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211141
617
Scalar quantity equal to the flux of the electric flux density D through a given directed surface S.
ExchangeIntegral
constituent of the interaction energy between the spins of adjacent electrons in matter arising from the overlap of electron state functions
ExchangeIntegral
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ExchangeIntegral
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q10882959
1234
constituent of the interaction energy between the spins of adjacent electrons in matter arising from the overlap of electron state functions
Whole
A whole is always defined using a criterion expressed through the classical transitive parthood relation.
This class is expected to host the definition of world objects as they appear in its wholeness, dependently on some of their parts and independently on the surroundings.
A whole is categorized as fundamental (or maximal) or redundant (nonmaximal).
The superclass of entities which are defined by requiring the existence of some parts (at least one) of specifically given types, where the specified types are different with respect to the type of the whole.
Whole
The superclass of entities which are defined by requiring the existence of some parts (at least one) of specifically given types, where the specified types are different with respect to the type of the whole.
A whole is always defined using a criterion expressed through the classical transitive parthood relation.
This class is expected to host the definition of world objects as they appear in its wholeness, dependently on some of their parts and independently on the surroundings.
1e+21
ZettaPrefixedUnit
Superclass for all units prefixed with "zetta" (1e21).
ZettaPrefixedUnit
Superclass for all units prefixed with "zetta" (1e21).
SIMetricMultipleUnit
Measurement unit obtained by multiplying a given measurement unit by an integer SI prefix greater than one.
SIMetricMultipleUnit
Measurement unit obtained by multiplying a given measurement unit by an integer SI prefix greater than one.
0.0
1.0
WattPerSquareMetrePascal
Watt Per Square Meter Per Pascal (W/m²pa) is a unit of Evaporative Heat Transfer.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Watt per Square Metre Pascal
WattPerSquareMetrePascal
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2PA
W.m2.Pa1
W/(m²⋅pa)
Watt Per Square Meter Per Pascal (W/m²pa) is a unit of Evaporative Heat Transfer.
 QUDT
LorenzCoefficient
Quotient of thermal conductivity, and the product of electric conductivity and thermodynamic temperature.
LorenzNumber
LorenzCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LorenzCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105728754
1218
Quotient of thermal conductivity, and the product of electric conductivity and thermodynamic temperature.
MolarMass
Mass per amount of substance.
MolarMass
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarMass
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q145623
94
Mass per amount of substance.
NuclearRadius
Conventional radius of sphere in which the nuclear matter is included,
NuclearRadius
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NuclearRadius
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3535676
1019.1
Conventional radius of sphere in which the nuclear matter is included,
Radius
Distance from the centre of a circle to the circumference.
Radius
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Radius
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q173817
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130125
https://dbpedia.org/page/Radius
31.6
Distance from the centre of a circle to the circumference.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radius
0.0
100.0
SquareCentiMetrePerCubicCentiMetre
Square centimetre per cubic centimetre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquareCentiMetrePerCubicCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2PERCentiM3
cm2.cm3
cm²/cm³
Square centimetre per cubic centimetre.
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
ReciprocalLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ReciprocalLength'.
ReciprocalLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ReciprocalLength'.
T0 L1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerLength'.
PerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerLength'.
0.0
1.0
LumenSecond
In photometry, the lumen second is the SI derived unit of luminous energy. It is based on the lumen, the SI unit of luminous flux, and the second, the SI base unit of time. The lumen second is sometimes called the talbot (symbol T). An older name for the lumen second was the lumberg.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
lumen second
LumenSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LMSEC
lm.s
lm⋅s
In photometry, the lumen second is the SI derived unit of luminous energy. It is based on the lumen, the SI unit of luminous flux, and the second, the SI base unit of time. The lumen second is sometimes called the talbot (symbol T). An older name for the lumen second was the lumberg.
 QUDT
Solid
A continuum characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume, that retains its shape and density when not confined.
Solid
A continuum characterized by structural rigidity and resistance to changes of shape or volume, that retains its shape and density when not confined.
F
FluorineSymbol
The symbol that stands for the fluorine atom.
FluorineSymbol
The symbol that stands for the fluorine atom.
Tessellation
A causal object that is tessellated in direct parts.
A tessellation (or tiling) is the covering of a surface, often a plane, using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.
Tiling
Tessellation
A tessellation (or tiling) is the covering of a surface, often a plane, using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.
A causal object that is tessellated in direct parts.
0.0
1.157407e05
ReciprocalDay
reciprocal of the unit day
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Reciprocal Day
ReciprocalDay
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERDAY
/d
d1
/day
reciprocal of the unit day
 QUDT
CompositeFermion
A nonelementary particle (bonded) of a fundamental fermionic type (halfinteger spin).
Examples of composite particles with halfinteger spin:
spin 1/2: He3 in ground state, proton, neutron
spin 3/2: He5 in ground state, Delta baryons (excitations of the proton and neutron)
CompositeFermion
A nonelementary particle (bonded) of a fundamental fermionic type (halfinteger spin).
Fermion
A physical particle with half odd integer spin (1/2, 3/2, etc...) that follows FermiDirac statistics.
Fermion
A physical particle with half odd integer spin (1/2, 3/2, etc...) that follows FermiDirac statistics.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermion
BondedParticle
A composite particle is a bonded particle for which it is possible to clearly define its bosonic or fermionic behaviour. The term particle is then reserved for entities whose fermionic or bosonic nature is clearly defined.
BondedParticle
A composite particle is a bonded particle for which it is possible to clearly define its bosonic or fermionic behaviour. The term particle is then reserved for entities whose fermionic or bosonic nature is clearly defined.
SIBaseUnit
The base units in the SI system.
https://www.bipm.org/utils/common/pdf/sibrochure/SIBrochure9EN.pdf
SIBaseUnit
The base units in the SI system.
BaseUnit
A set of units that correspond to the base quantities in a system of units.
BaseUnit
A set of units that correspond to the base quantities in a system of units.
base unit
ArchetypeManufacturing
A manufacturing in which the product is a solid body with a well defined geometrical shape made from shapeless original material parts, whose cohesion is created during the process.
DIN 8580:2020
Urformen
PrimitiveForming
ArchetypeManufacturing
A manufacturing in which the product is a solid body with a well defined geometrical shape made from shapeless original material parts, whose cohesion is created during the process.
WorkpieceManufacturing
A manufacturing with an output that is an object with a specific function, shape, or intended use, not simply a material.
DIN 8580:2020
ISO 155311:2004
discrete manufacturing: production of discrete items.
ISO 88871:2017
manufacturing: production of components
Werkstücke
DiscreteManufacturing
WorkpieceManufacturing
A manufacturing with an output that is an object with a specific function, shape, or intended use, not simply a material.
AssemblyLine
A manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product.
Is not collection, since the connection between the elements of an assembly line occurs through the flow of objects that are processed.
AssemblyLine
A manufacturing process in which interchangeable parts are added to a product in a sequential manner to create an end product.
ManufacturingSystem
A system arranged to setup a specific manufacturing process.
ManufacturingSystem
A system arranged to setup a specific manufacturing process.
0.0
1.0
MoleKelvin
Mole Kelvin is a unit for `Temperature Amount Of Substance` expressed as molK.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Mole Kelvin
MoleKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLK
mol.K
mol⋅K
Mole Kelvin is a unit for `Temperature Amount Of Substance` expressed as molK.
 QUDT
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ+1 N+1 J0
AmountTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountTemperature'.
AmountTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountTemperature'.
3600000.0
0.0
WattHourPerLitre
A unit of energy density commonly used to measure the density of energy in batteries and capacitors.
WattHourPerLitre
A unit of energy density commonly used to measure the density of energy in batteries and capacitors.
T2 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PressureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Pressure'.
PressureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Pressure'.
File
In computing, a computer file is a resource for recording data on a computer storage device, primarily identified by its file path.
File
In computing, a computer file is a resource for recording data on a computer storage device, primarily identified by its file path.
DigitalData
Discrete data that are decoded as a sequence of 1/0, or true/false, or on/off.
BinaryData
DigitalData
Discrete data that are decoded as a sequence of 1/0, or true/false, or on/off.
SystemResource
Any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.
Resource
SystemResource
Any physical or virtual component of limited availability within a computer system.
RotationalFrequency
Magnitude of the angular velocity ω divided by the angle 2π, thus n = ω/2π.
RotationalFrequency
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130142
317.2
Magnitude of the angular velocity ω divided by the angle 2π, thus n = ω/2π.
Frequency
Number of periods per time interval.
Frequency
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Frequency
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q11652
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030602
315.1
Number of periods per time interval.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.FT07383
KnownConstant
A variable that stand for a well known numerical constant (a known number).
π refers to the constant number ~3.14
KnownConstant
A variable that stand for a well known numerical constant (a known number).
Constant
A variable that stand for a numerical constant, even if it is unknown.
Constant
A variable that stand for a numerical constant, even if it is unknown.
2
Collection
A collection is the concept that complements the item concept, being an entity that possesses at least one part non directly causally connected with the rest.
A collection can be partitioned in maximally connected items called members. The members are selfconnected entities and there is no direct causality relation between them.
The combination of collection and item concepts is the EMMO mereocausality alternative to set theory. However, two items can be members only if they are non direct causally connected, giving some constraints to a collection definition. For example, two entities which are directly connected cannot be two distinct members, while their interiors (i.e. the entities obtained by removing the layer of parts that provides the causal contact between them) can be.
The class of not direct causally selfconnected world entities.
The collection of users of a particular software, the collection of atoms that have been part of that just dissociated molecule.
Collection
A collection is the concept that complements the item concept, being an entity that possesses at least one part non directly causally connected with the rest.
A collection can be partitioned in maximally connected items called members. The members are selfconnected entities and there is no direct causality relation between them.
The combination of collection and item concepts is the EMMO mereocausality alternative to set theory. However, two items can be members only if they are non direct causally connected, giving some constraints to a collection definition. For example, two entities which are directly connected cannot be two distinct members, while their interiors (i.e. the entities obtained by removing the layer of parts that provides the causal contact between them) can be.
The class of not direct causally selfconnected world entities.
Baryon
Subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks, at least 3.
Baryon
Subatomic particle which contains an odd number of valence quarks, at least 3.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baryon
Hadron
Particles composed of two or more quarks.
Hadron
Particles composed of two or more quarks.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadron
PressureCoefficient
Change of pressure per change of temperature at constant volume.
PressureCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/PressureCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q74762732
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130429
54
Change of pressure per change of temperature at constant volume.
AqueousSolution
A liquid solution in which the solvent is water.
AqueousSolution
A liquid solution in which the solvent is water.
LiquidSolution
A liquid solution made of two or more component substances.
LiquidSolution
A liquid solution made of two or more component substances.
ElementaryFermion
An elementary particle of a fundamental fermionic type.
ElementaryFermion
An elementary particle of a fundamental fermionic type.
ElementaryParticle
A chausal chain whose quantum parts are of the same standard model fundamental type.
An elementary particle is a causal chain of quantum entities of the same type. For example, an elementary electron is a sequence of fundamental electrons only.
SingleParticleChain
ElementaryParticle
An elementary particle is a causal chain of quantum entities of the same type. For example, an elementary electron is a sequence of fundamental electrons only.
A chausal chain whose quantum parts are of the same standard model fundamental type.
0.0
1.0
SquarePascalSecond
Square Pascal Second (Pa²· s) is a unit in the category of sound exposure.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsspecific_acoustic_impedancepascal_second_per_meter.cfm
Square Pascal Second
SquarePascalSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PA2SEC
Pa2.s
Pa²⋅s
Square Pascal Second (Pa²· s) is a unit in the category of sound exposure.
 QUDT
T3 L2 M+2 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SquarePressureTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquarePressureTime'.
SquarePressureTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SquarePressureTime'.
Time
Onedimensional subspace of spacetime, which is locally orthogonal to space.
The indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Time can be seen as the duration of an event or, more operationally, as "what clocks read".
Time
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Time
Onedimensional subspace of spacetime, which is locally orthogonal to space.
37
The indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.T06375
Tb
TerbiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the terbium atom.
TerbiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the terbium atom.
Variable
A variable is a symbolic object that stands for any other mathematical object, such as number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, an element of a set.
x
k
Variable
A variable is a symbolic object that stands for any other mathematical object, such as number, a vector, a matrix, a function, the argument of a function, a set, an element of a set.
0.0
1.0
HenryPerOhm
SI derived unit henry divided by the SI derived unit ohm
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Henry Per Ohm
HenryPerOhm
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HPEROHM
H.Ohm1
H/Ω
SI derived unit henry divided by the SI derived unit ohm
 QUDT
1.0
0.0
WattPerSquareMetre
"Watt per Square Meter} is a unit of irradiance defined as the power received per area. This is a unit in the category of Energy flux. It is also known as watts per square meter, watt per square metre, watts per square metre, watt/square meter, watt/square metre. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Watt Per Square Meter (W/m²) has a dimension of MT^{3" where M is mass, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsenergy_fluxwatt_per_square_meter.cfm
Watt per Square Metre
WattPerSquareMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM2
W.m2
W/m2
W/m²
"Watt per Square Meter} is a unit of irradiance defined as the power received per area. This is a unit in the category of Energy flux. It is also known as watts per square meter, watt per square metre, watts per square metre, watt/square meter, watt/square metre. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Watt Per Square Meter (W/m²) has a dimension of MT^{3" where M is mass, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
1.0
0.0
BecquerelSecondPerCubicMetre
Becquerels second per cubic metre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
BecquerelSecondPerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/BQSECPERM3
Bq.s.m3
Bq⋅s/m³
Becquerels second per cubic metre.
T0 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PerVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerVolume'.
PerVolumeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerVolume'.
QuinticMetre
Metre to the power of five.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
QuinticMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M5
m⁵
Metre to the power of five.
T0 L+5 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
SectionAreaIntegralUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SectionAreaIntegral'.
SectionAreaIntegralUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'SectionAreaIntegral'.
1.0
0.0
NewtonSecond
product of the SI derived unit newton and the SI base unit second
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Newton Second
NewtonSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NSEC
N.s
N⋅s
product of the SI derived unit newton and the SI base unit second
 QUDT
T1 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MomentumUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Momentum'.
MomentumUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Momentum'.
PaperManufacturing
PaperManufacturing
IsochoricHeatCapacity
Heat capacity at constant volume.
HeatCapacityAtConstantVolume
IsochoricHeatCapacity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q112187521
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130450
516.3
Heat capacity at constant volume.
HeatCapacity
Examples of condition might be constant volume or constant pressure for a gas.
Quantity C = dQ/dT, when the thermodynamic temperature of a system is increased by dT as a result of the addition of a amount of heat dQ, under given condition.
HeatCapacity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/HeatCapacity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q179388
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130447
https://dbpedia.org/page/Heat_capacity
515
Quantity C = dQ/dT, when the thermodynamic temperature of a system is increased by dT as a result of the addition of a amount of heat dQ, under given condition.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_capacity
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02753
SupplyChain
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer.
SupplyChain
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in supplying a product or service to a consumer.
EnergyFluence
In nuclear physics, incident radiant energy per crosssectional area.
EnergyFluence
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/EnergyFluence
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98538612
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950117
1046
In nuclear physics, incident radiant energy per crosssectional area.
1.0
0.0
MolePerSquareMetrePerSecondPerMetre
Moles per square metre and second and metre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MolePerSquareMetrePerSecondPerMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOLPERM2SECM
mol.m2.s1.m1
mol/(m²⋅s⋅m)
Moles per square metre and second and metre.
T1 L3 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
AmountPerVolumeTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountPerVolumeTime'.
AmountPerVolumeTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AmountPerVolumeTime'.
TechnologyProcess
Class that includes the application of scientific knowledge, tools and techniques in order to transform a precursor object (ex. conversion of material) following a practic purpose.
Conversion of materials and assembly of components for the manufacture of products
Technology is the application of knowledge for achieving practical goals in a reproducible way.
Technology refers to methods, systems, and devices which are the result of scientific knowledge being used for practical purposes.
application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts or systems in order to solve a problem or to achieve an objective which can result in a product or process
application of scientific knowledge, tools, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or achieve an objective
ProductionEngineeringProcess
TechnologyProcess
Class that includes the application of scientific knowledge, tools and techniques in order to transform a precursor object (ex. conversion of material) following a practic purpose.
lm
Lumen
SI unit for luminous flux.
The SI unit for measuring the flux of light being produced by a light source or received by a surface. The intensity of a light source is measured in candelas. One lumen represents the total flux of light emitted, equal to the intensity in candelas multiplied by the solid angle in steradians into which the light is emitted. A full sphere has a solid angle of 4·π steradians. A light source that uniformly radiates one candela in all directions has a total luminous flux of 1 cd·4π sr = 4π cd·sr ≈ 12.57 lumens. "Lumen" is a Latin word for light.
 QUDT
Lumen
LUM
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/LM
lm
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Lumen
SI unit for luminous flux.
The SI unit for measuring the flux of light being produced by a light source or received by a surface. The intensity of a light source is measured in candelas. One lumen represents the total flux of light emitted, equal to the intensity in candelas multiplied by the solid angle in steradians into which the light is emitted. A full sphere has a solid angle of 4·π steradians. A light source that uniformly radiates one candela in all directions has a total luminous flux of 1 cd·4π sr = 4π cd·sr ≈ 12.57 lumens. "Lumen" is a Latin word for light.
 QUDT
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lumen_(unit)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03639
Cl
ChlorineSymbol
The symbol that stands for the chlorine atom.
ChlorineSymbol
The symbol that stands for the chlorine atom.
Entropy
Logarithmic measure of the number of available states of a system.
May also be referred to as a measure of order of a system.
Entropy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Entropy
518
Logarithmic measure of the number of available states of a system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02149
ModelledProperty
A quantity obtained from a welldefined modelling procedure.
ModelledProperty
A quantity obtained from a welldefined modelling procedure.
InternalEnergy
A state quantity equal to the difference between the total energy of a system and the sum of the macroscopic kinetic and potential energies of the system.
ThermodynamicEnergy
InternalEnergy
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/InternalEnergy
5.202
A state quantity equal to the difference between the total energy of a system and the sum of the macroscopic kinetic and potential energies of the system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.I03103
T+3 L2 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricConductanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricConductance'.
ElectricConductanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricConductance'.
RadiantFlux
The radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.
RadiantFlux
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RadiantFlux
The radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.R05046
Power
Rate of transfer of energy per unit time.
Power
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Power
427
645
Rate of transfer of energy per unit time.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04792
0.0
1.0
PerMole
Per Mole Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions mol⁻¹.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalMole
PerMole
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMOL
mol1
/mol
Per Mole Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions mol⁻¹.
 QUDT
1.0
0.0
PerSquareJoule
Per Square Joule is a denominator unit with dimensions /eV².
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalSquareJoule
PerSquareJoule
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERJ2
J2
/J²
Per Square Joule is a denominator unit with dimensions /eV².
 QUDT
T+4 L4 M2 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
ReciprocalSquareEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ReciprocalSquareEnergy'.
ReciprocalSquareEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ReciprocalSquareEnergy'.
ElectricChargeDensity
Electric charge per volume.
VolumeElectricCharge
ElectricChargeDensity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricChargeDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q69425629
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211107
63
Electric charge per volume.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C00988
Fluid
A continuum that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure.
Gas, liquid, plasma,
Fluid
A continuum that has no fixed shape and yields easily to external pressure.
ContinuumSubstance
A continuum is made of a sufficient number of parts that it continues to exists as continuum individual even after the loss of one of them i.e. a continuum is a redundant.
A state that is a collection of sufficiently large number of other parts such that:
 it is the bearer of qualities that can exists only by the fact that it is a sum of parts
 the smallest partition dV of the state volume in which we are interested in, contains enough parts to be statistically consistent: n [#/m3] x dV [m3] >> 1
ContinuumSubstance
A state that is a collection of sufficiently large number of other parts such that:
 it is the bearer of qualities that can exists only by the fact that it is a sum of parts
 the smallest partition dV of the state volume in which we are interested in, contains enough parts to be statistically consistent: n [#/m3] x dV [m3] >> 1
A continuum is made of a sufficient number of parts that it continues to exists as continuum individual even after the loss of one of them i.e. a continuum is a redundant.
A continuum is not necessarily small (i.e. composed by the minimum amount of sates to fulfill the definition).
A single continuum individual can be the whole fluid in a pipe.
A continuum is the bearer of properties that are generated by the interactions of parts such as viscosity and thermal or electrical conductivity.
StateOfMatter
A superclass made as the disjoint union of all the form under which matter can exist.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
StateOfMatter
A superclass made as the disjoint union of all the form under which matter can exist.
In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_matter
Ablation
Manufacturing by separating particles of material from a solid body by nonmechanical means. Ablation refers both to the removal of layers of material and to the separation of workpiece parts. The production process of ablation is considered in its stationary instantaneous state, independently of the application of auxiliary processes necessary to initiate the process. Ablation is divided into three subgroups according to the order point of view (OGP) "process in the effective zone on the surface of the workpiece":  thermal ablation;  chemical ablation;  electrochemical ablation.
Abtragen
Ablation
3600.0
0.0
WattHour
The watt hour is a unit of energy, equal to 3,600 joule.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
WattHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WHR
W.h
W⋅hr
The watt hour is a unit of energy, equal to 3,600 joule.
 QUDT
0.0
0.001
PascalLitrePerSecond
product out of the SI derived unit pascal and the unit litre divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Pascal Litre Per Second
PascalLitrePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PALPERSEC
Pa.L.s1
Pa⋅L/s
product out of the SI derived unit pascal and the unit litre divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
ElementalSubstance
A chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
PureSubstance
ElementalSubstance
A chemical substance composed of atoms with the same number of protons in the atomic nucleus.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01022
ChemicalSubstance
A substance is always composed of more than one molecular entity. It lays in the continuum or mesoscopic domain.
Matter of constant composition best characterized by the entities (molecules, formula units, atoms) it is composed of.
ChemicalSubstance
Matter of constant composition best characterized by the entities (molecules, formula units, atoms) it is composed of.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.C01039
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
LengthTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LengthTemperature'.
LengthTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LengthTemperature'.
MathematicalSymbol
MathematicalSymbol
SourceCode
A programming language entity expressing a formal detailed plan of what a software is intended to do.
A source code is the companion of an application, being it the entity used to generate the application list of CPU executable instructions.
SourceCode
A programming language entity expressing a formal detailed plan of what a software is intended to do.
A source code is the companion of an application, being it the entity used to generate the application list of CPU executable instructions.
Source code (also referred to as source or code) is the version of software as it is originally written (i.e., typed into a computer) by a human in plain text (i.e., human readable alphanumeric characters).
Software
All or part of the programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation of an information processing system.
Software is usually used as a generic term for programs. However, in its broadest sense it can refer to all information (i.e., both programs and data) in electronic form and can provide a distinction from hardware, which refers to computers or other electronic systems on which software can exist and be use.
Here we explicitly include in the definition also all the data (e.g. source code, script files) that takes part to the building of the executable, are necessary to the execution of a program or that document it for the users.
Software
All or part of the programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation of an information processing system.
Software is usually used as a generic term for programs. However, in its broadest sense it can refer to all information (i.e., both programs and data) in electronic form and can provide a distinction from hardware, which refers to computers or other electronic systems on which software can exist and be use.
Here we explicitly include in the definition also all the data (e.g. source code, script files) that takes part to the building of the executable, are necessary to the execution of a program or that document it for the users.
ProgrammingLanguage
A language object that follows syntactic rules of a programming language.
A programming language object can also be a fragment (e.g. a C function) not suitable for exectution.
Code
SoftwareCode
ProgrammingLanguage
A language object that follows syntactic rules of a programming language.
A programming language object can also be a fragment (e.g. a C function) not suitable for exectution.
Entities are not necessarily digital data, but can be code fragments printed on paper.
Mc
MoscoviumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the moscovium atom.
MoscoviumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the moscovium atom.
SourceVoltage
Voltage between the two terminals of a voltage source when there is no electric current through the source.
SourceTension
SourceVoltage
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SourceVoltage
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q185329
636
Voltage between the two terminals of a voltage source when there is no electric current through the source.
Voltage
Correspond to the work needed per unit of charge to move a test charge between two points in a static electric field.
The difference in electric potential between two points.
ElectricPotentialDifference
ElectricTension
Voltage
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Voltage
611.3
The difference in electric potential between two points.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00424
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.V06635
z
1e21
Zepto
SI prefix who's value is 1e21.
Zepto
SI prefix who's value is 1e21.
SISubMultiplePrefix
SI prefix who's value is 1/N where N is a positive integer larger than 1.
SISubMultiplePrefix
SI prefix who's value is 1/N where N is a positive integer larger than 1.
QualityFactor
Dimensionless quantity in electromagnetism.
QualityFactor
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/QualityFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q79467569
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1511545
653
Dimensionless quantity in electromagnetism.
0.0
1.0
JouleSecondPerMole
`Joule Second per Mole` is a unit for 'Molar Angular Momentum' expressed as J s mol⁻¹.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Joule Second per Mole
JouleSecondPerMole
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JSECPERMOL
J.s.mol1
J⋅s/mol
`Joule Second per Mole` is a unit for 'Molar Angular Momentum' expressed as J s mol⁻¹.
 QUDT
T1 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N1 J0
EnergyTimePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'EnergyTimePerAmount'.
EnergyTimePerAmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'EnergyTimePerAmount'.
1.602177e19
0.0
ElectronvoltPerMetre
unit electronvolt divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Electronvolt Per Metre
ElectronvoltPerMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/EVPERM
eV.m1
eV/m
eV/m
unit electronvolt divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
NonPrefixedUnit
A measurement unit symbol that do not have a metric prefix as a direct spatial part.
NonPrefixedUnit
A measurement unit symbol that do not have a metric prefix as a direct spatial part.
10000.0
0.0
JoulePerSquareCentiMetre
derived SI unit joule divided by the 0.0001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 2
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Joule Per Square Centimetre
JoulePerSquareCentiMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/JPERCentiM2
J.cm2
J/cm²
derived SI unit joule divided by the 0.0001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre by exponent 2
 QUDT
T2 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
ForcePerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ForcePerLength'.
ForcePerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ForcePerLength'.
0.0
1e12
QuarticMilliMetre
0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 4
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Quartic Millimetre
QuarticMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MilliM4
mm4
mm⁴
0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 4
 QUDT
T0 L+4 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
QuarticLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'QuarticLength'.
QuarticLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'QuarticLength'.
0.0
1000.0
GramPerMilliLitre
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the 0.001fold of the unit litre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Gram Per Millilitre
GramPerMilliLitre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERMilliL
g.mL1
g/mL
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the 0.001fold of the unit litre
 QUDT
T0 L3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
DensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Density'.
DensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Density'.
1.157407e08
0.0
GramPerDay
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit day
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Gram Per Day
GramPerDay
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GMPERDAY
g.d1
g/day
0,001fold of the SI base unit kilogram divided by the unit day
 QUDT
T1 L0 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MassPerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerTime'.
MassPerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerTime'.
1.0
0.0
RadianSquareMetrePerKilogram
Radian square metre per kilogram.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
RadianSquareMetrePerKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADM2PERKiloGM
rad.m2.kg1
rad⋅m²/kg
Radian square metre per kilogram.
Existent
'Existent' is the EMMO class to be used for representing real world physical objects under a reductionistic perspective (i.e. objects come from the composition of subpart objects, both in time and space).
'Existent' class collects all individuals that stand for physical objects that can be structured in well defined temporal subparts called states, through the temporal direct parthood relation.
This class provides a first granularity hierarchy in time, and a way to axiomatize tessellation principles for a specific whole with a nontransitivity relation (direct parthood) that helps to retain the granularity levels.
e.g. a car, a supersaturated gas with nucleating nanoparticles, an atom that becomes ionized and then recombines with an electron.
A 'Physical' which is a tessellation of 'State' temporal direct parts.
An 'Existent' individual stands for a real world object for which the ontologist wants to provide univocal tessellation in time.
By definition, the tiles are represented by 'State's individual.
Tiles are related to the 'Existent' through temporal direct parthood, enforcing nontransitivity and inversefunctionality.
Being hasTemporalDirectPart a proper parthood relation, there cannot be 'Existent' made of a single 'State'.
Moreover, due to inverse functionality, a 'State' can be part of only one 'Existent', preventing overlapping between 'Existent's.
true
Existent
A 'Physical' which is a tessellation of 'State' temporal direct parts.
Sequence
A tessellation of temporal slices.
Sequence
https://raw.githubusercontent.com/emmorepo/EMMO/1.0.0rc1/doc/figs/Sequence.png
A tessellation of temporal slices.
1000.0
0.0
ReciprocalLitre
reciprocal value of the unit litre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Reciprocal Litre
ReciprocalLitre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERL
L1
/L
reciprocal value of the unit litre
 QUDT
Pa
Pascal
SI unit for pressure.
The SI unit of pressure. The pascal is the standard pressure unit in the MKS metric system, equal to one newton per square meter or one "kilogram per meter per second per second." The unit is named for Blaise Pascal (16231662), French philosopher and mathematician, who was the first person to use a barometer to measure differences in altitude.
 QUDT
Pascal
PAL
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PA
Pa
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Pascal
SI unit for pressure.
The SI unit of pressure. The pascal is the standard pressure unit in the MKS metric system, equal to one newton per square meter or one "kilogram per meter per second per second." The unit is named for Blaise Pascal (16231662), French philosopher and mathematician, who was the first person to use a barometer to measure differences in altitude.
 QUDT
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal?oldid=492989202
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04442
Determiner
An 'interpreter' that perceives another 'entity' (the 'object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'property' (the 'sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception.
Determiner
An 'interpreter' that perceives another 'entity' (the 'object') through a specific perception mechanism and produces a 'property' (the 'sign') that stands for the result of that particular perception.
FunctionallyDefinedMaterial
FunctionallyDefinedMaterial
Material
A instance of a material (e.g. nitrogen) can represent any state of matter. The fact that the individual also belongs to other classes (e.g. Gas) would reveal the actual form in which the material is found.
The class of individuals standing for an amount of ordinary matter substance (or mixture of substances) in different states of matter or phases.
Material
The class of individuals standing for an amount of ordinary matter substance (or mixture of substances) in different states of matter or phases.
A instance of a material (e.g. nitrogen) can represent any state of matter. The fact that the individual also belongs to other classes (e.g. Gas) would reveal the actual form in which the material is found.
Material usually means some definite kind, quality, or quantity of matter, especially as intended for use.
0.0
2.777778e10
CubicCentiMetrePerHour
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Centimetre Per Hour
CubicCentiMetrePerHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERHR
cm3.h1
cm3/h
cm³/hr
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the unit hour
 QUDT
y
1e24
Yocto
SI prefix who's value is 1e24.
Yocto
SI prefix who's value is 1e24.
LatentHeatOfPhaseTransition
Energy to be added to or removed from a system under constant temperature and pressure to undergo a complete phase transition.
LatentHeatOfPhaseTransition
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q106553458
916
Energy to be added to or removed from a system under constant temperature and pressure to undergo a complete phase transition.
LatentHeat
Heat released or absorbed energy during a constanttemperature process.
LatentHeat
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q207721
56.2
Heat released or absorbed energy during a constanttemperature process.
Moulding
Free forming is pressure forming with tools that do not or only partially contain the shape of the workpiece and move against each other (from: DIN 8583 Part 3/05.70).
Gesenkformen
Moulding
Component
A constituent of a system.
Component
A constituent of a system.
Constituent
An object which is an holistic spatial part of a object.
ObjectPart
A tire is a constituent of a car.
Constituent
An object which is an holistic spatial part of a object.
StyleSheetLanguage
A computer language that expresses the presentation of structured documents.
CSS
StyleSheetLanguage
A computer language that expresses the presentation of structured documents.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Style_sheet_language
ComputerLanguage
A formal language used to communicate with a computer.
The categorisation of computer languages is based on
Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK(R)): Version 3.0, January 2014. Editors Pierre Bourque, Richard E. Fairley. Publisher: IEEE Computer Society PressWashingtonDCUnited States. ISBN:9780769551661.
https://www.computer.org/education/bodiesofknowledge/softwareengineering
ComputerLanguage
A formal language used to communicate with a computer.
The categorisation of computer languages is based on
Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK(R)): Version 3.0, January 2014. Editors Pierre Bourque, Richard E. Fairley. Publisher: IEEE Computer Society PressWashingtonDCUnited States. ISBN:9780769551661.
https://www.computer.org/education/bodiesofknowledge/softwareengineering
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_language
55.845
26
IronAtom
Atom subclass for iron.
IronAtom
Atom subclass for iron.
Manufacturer
A strict fundamental object overcrossing a manufacturing process, the intersection being the agent that participates and drives the manufacturing process.
Manufacturer
A strict fundamental object overcrossing a manufacturing process, the intersection being the agent that participates and drives the manufacturing process.
HolisticArrangement
A system which is mainly characterised by the spatial configuration of its elements.
HolisticArrangement
A system which is mainly characterised by the spatial configuration of its elements.
SIAcceptedPrefixedUnit
NonSI prefixed units that have been accepted by SI to be used together with the SI system.
SIAcceptedPrefixedUnit
NonSI prefixed units that have been accepted by SI to be used together with the SI system.
SIAccepted
NonSI unit that has been accepted by SI to be used together with the SI system.
SIAccepted
NonSI unit that has been accepted by SI to be used together with the SI system.
NumericData
A symbolic data representing a numerical value.
NumericData
A symbolic data representing a numerical value.
MassieuFunction
Negative quotient of Helmholtz energy and temperature.
MassieuFunction
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MassieuFunction
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q3077625
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130426
522
Negative quotient of Helmholtz energy and temperature.
OsmoticPressure
Measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent by osmosis.
OsmoticPressure
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/OsmoticPressure
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q193135
928
Measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent by osmosis.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.O04344
MeasurementResult
A measurement result generally contains “relevant information” about the set of measured quantity properties, such that some may be more representative of the measured quantity than others. This may be expressed in the form of a probability density function (pdf).
Result of a measurement.
A set of quantites being attributed to a measurand (measured quantitative property) together with any other available relevant information, like measurement uncertainty.
 VIM
MeasurementResult
Result of a measurement.
A set of quantites being attributed to a measurand (measured quantitative property) together with any other available relevant information, like measurement uncertainty.
 VIM
measurement result
A measurement result generally contains “relevant information” about the set of measured quantity properties, such that some may be more representative of the measured quantity than others. This may be expressed in the form of a probability density function (pdf).
A measurement result has the measured quantity, measurement uncertainty and other relevant attributes as holistic parts.
Objective
A coded conventional that is determined by each interpeter following a well defined determination procedure through a specific perception channel.
The word objective does not mean that each observation will provide the same results. It means that the observation followed a well defined procedure.
This class refers to what is commonly known as physical property, i.e. a measurable property of physical system, whether is quantifiable or not.
Objective
A coded conventional that is determined by each interpeter following a well defined determination procedure through a specific perception channel.
Kerma
Kinetic energy released per mass.
Kerma
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Kerma
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1739288
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=3950136
1086.1
Kinetic energy released per mass.
1.0
0.0
WeberPerMetre
SI derived unit weber divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Weber Per Metre
WeberPerMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WBPERM
Wb.m1
Wb/m
SI derived unit weber divided by the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
T2 L+1 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
MagneticPotentialUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticPotential'.
MagneticPotentialUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MagneticPotential'.
CategorizedPhysicalQuantity
The superclass for all physical quantities classes that are categorized according to some domain of interests (e.g. metallurgy, chemistry), property (intensive/extensive) or application.
https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Constants
CategorizedPhysicalQuantity
The superclass for all physical quantities classes that are categorized according to some domain of interests (e.g. metallurgy, chemistry), property (intensive/extensive) or application.
1.0
0.0
PascalPerSecond
A rate of change of pressure measured as the number of Pascals in a period of one second.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Pascal per Second
PascalPerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAPERSEC
Pa.s1
Pa/s
P/s
A rate of change of pressure measured as the number of Pascals in a period of one second.
 QUDT
T3 L1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PressurePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PressurePerTime'.
PressurePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PressurePerTime'.
T0 L+1 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
LengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Length'.
LengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Length'.
0.0
1e06
MicroLitrePerLitre
volume ratio as 0.000001fold of the unit litre divided by the unit litre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Microlitre Per Litre
MicroLitrePerLitre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroLPERL
uL.L1
uL/L
μL/L
volume ratio as 0.000001fold of the unit litre divided by the unit litre
 QUDT
VolumeFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two volumes.
Unit for volume fraction.
VolumeFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two volumes.
Plane
A 2manifold with two unconnected boundaries.
Plane
A 2manifold with two unconnected boundaries.
TwoManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 2dimensional Euclidean space.
2manifold
TwoManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 2dimensional Euclidean space.
Hz
Hertz
SI unit for frequence.
The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications, such as the frequency of musical tones. The word "hertz" is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, who was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves.
 QUDT
Hertz
HTZ
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZ
Hz
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Hertz
SI unit for frequence.
The hertz (symbol Hz) is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications, such as the frequency of musical tones. The word "hertz" is named for Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, who was the first to conclusively prove the existence of electromagnetic waves.
 QUDT
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.H02785
0.0
1.0
CubicMetrePerKilogramSquareSecond
Cubic metre per kilogram and square second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
CubicMetrePerKilogramSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERKiloGMSEC2
m3.(kg.s2)1
m3.kg1.s2
m3/(kg.s2)
m³/(kg⋅s²)
Cubic metre per kilogram and square second.
T2 L+3 M1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
NewtonianConstantOfGravityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'NewtonianConstantOfGravity'.
NewtonianConstantOfGravityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'NewtonianConstantOfGravity'.
Ti
TitaniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the titanium atom.
TitaniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the titanium atom.
52
127.6
TelluriumAtom
Atom subclass for tellurium.
TelluriumAtom
Atom subclass for tellurium.
ChemicallyDefinedMaterial
ChemicallyDefinedMaterial
0.0
1e06
SquareMilliMetrePerSecond
0.000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2 divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Square Millimetre Per Second
SquareMilliMetrePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MilliM2PERSEC
mm2.s1
mm²/s
0.000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2 divided by the SI base unit second
 QUDT
T1 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AreicSpeedUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreicSpeed'.
AreicSpeedUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AreicSpeed'.
SIPrefix
Metric prefix defined in the SI system.
SIPrefix
Metric prefix defined in the SI system.
StandardAbsoluteActivity
For a substance in a mixture, the absolute activity of the pure substance at the same temperature but at standard pressure.
StandardAbsoluteActivityInAMixture
StandardAbsoluteActivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/StandardAbsoluteActivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89406159
923
For a substance in a mixture, the absolute activity of the pure substance at the same temperature but at standard pressure.
AbsoluteActivity
The exponential of the ratio of the chemical potential to R*T where R is the gas constant and T the thermodynamic temperature.
AbsoluteActivity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AbsoluteActivity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q56638155
918
The exponential of the ratio of the chemical potential to R*T where R is the gas constant and T the thermodynamic temperature.
https://goldbook.iupac.org/terms/view/A00019
1000000000000000.0
P
Peta
SI prefix who's value is 1e15.
Peta
SI prefix who's value is 1e15.
SIMultiplePrefix
SI prefix who's value is a positive integer larger than 1.
SIMultiplePrefix
SI prefix who's value is a positive integer larger than 1.
ModulusOfCompression
Measure of how resistant to compressibility a substance is.
BulkModulus
ModulusOfCompression
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/BulkModulus
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q900371
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130369
419.3
Measure of how resistant to compressibility a substance is.
MathematicalConstruct
MathematicalConstruct
57
138.90547
LanthanumAtom
Atom subclass for lanthanum.
LanthanumAtom
Atom subclass for lanthanum.
Observer
A characteriser that declares a property for an object through the specific interaction required by the property definition.
Observer
A characteriser that declares a property for an object through the specific interaction required by the property definition.
PhysicalParticle
A well defined physical entity, elementary or composite, usually treated as a singular unit, that is found at scales spanning from the elementary particles to molecules, as fundamental constituents of larger scale substances (as the etymology of "particle" suggests).
The scope of the physical particle definition goes from the elementary particles to molecules, as fundamental constituents of substances.
The union of hadron and lepton, or fermion and bosons.
Particle
PhysicalParticle
The union of hadron and lepton, or fermion and bosons.
A well defined physical entity, elementary or composite, usually treated as a singular unit, that is found at scales spanning from the elementary particles to molecules, as fundamental constituents of larger scale substances (as the etymology of "particle" suggests).
The scope of the physical particle definition goes from the elementary particles to molecules, as fundamental constituents of substances.
0.0
1e06
MicroOhm
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit ohm
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MicroOhm
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroOHM
uOhm
μΩ
0.000001fold of the SI derived unit ohm
 QUDT
T3 L+2 M+1 I2 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricResistanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricResistance'.
ElectricResistanceUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricResistance'.
0.006
0.0
SquareCentiMetreMinute
"Square centimeter minute" is a unit for 'Area Time' expressed as cm² . m.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Square Centimetre Minute
SquareCentiMetreMinute
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2MIN
cm2.min
cm²m
"Square centimeter minute" is a unit for 'Area Time' expressed as cm² . m.
 QUDT
Network
A system whose is mainly characterised by the way in which elements are interconnected.
Network
A system whose is mainly characterised by the way in which elements are interconnected.
MagneticSusceptibility
Scalar or tensor quantity the product of which by the magnetic constant μ0 and by the magnetic field strength H is equal to the magnetic polarization J.
MagneticSusceptibility
https://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SUSCEPTIBILITY_MAG.html
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q691463
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211237
628
Scalar or tensor quantity the product of which by the magnetic constant μ0 and by the magnetic field strength H is equal to the magnetic polarization J.
0.0
1.0
SquareMetreCubicHertz
Square metre and cubic Hertz.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquareMetreCubicHertz
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2HZ3
m2.Hz3
m²⋅Hz³
Square metre and cubic Hertz.
T3 L+2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AbsorbedDoseRateUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AbsorbedDoseRate'.
AbsorbedDoseRateUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AbsorbedDoseRate'.
Device
An object which is instrumental for reaching a particular purpose through its characteristic functioning process, with particular reference to mechanical or electronic equipment.
Equipment
Machine
Device
An object which is instrumental for reaching a particular purpose through its characteristic functioning process, with particular reference to mechanical or electronic equipment.
Object
An item can be classified as an object according to a type ϕ (a ϕobject) if it's a ϕ all its temporal item parts are also of type ϕ. This conceptualisation tries to catch the persistency of type in the temporal parts of an entity.
Indefinitely temporally slicing of an entity leads to temporal parts whose temporal extension is so small that the connectivity relations that define the entity as an item will no longer hold. More generally. a temporal part is no more of type ϕ when the temporal interval is lower than the interval that characterizes the causality interactions between the object parts.
In other terms, if the time span of a temporal part is lower than the inverse of the frequency of interactions between the constituents, then the constituents in such temporal part are not connected. The object is no more an object, neither an item, but simply a collection of fundamental quantum parts.
For this reason, the definition of object is done by considering only item temporal parts, meaning that slicing in time has the lower limit of a selfconnected (i.e. item) entity.
The superclass for causal structure classes whose individuals have all temporal item parts of the same type of the whole.
Continuant
Endurant
Practically speaking, the Object class can be populated by primitive subclasses (e.g. Car) for each of which holds the axiom that all the item parts are of the same type of the whole (e.g. Car SubClassOf hasTemporalItemPart only Car).
The intended usage is not for an individual to belong directly to Object, but to belong to a specific subclass of Object that identifies entities with a typepersistent structure.
Object
An item can be classified as an object according to a type ϕ (a ϕobject) if it's a ϕ all its temporal item parts are also of type ϕ. This conceptualisation tries to catch the persistency of type in the temporal parts of an entity.
The superclass for causal structure classes whose individuals have all temporal item parts of the same type of the whole.
Indefinitely temporally slicing of an entity leads to temporal parts whose temporal extension is so small that the connectivity relations that define the entity as an item will no longer hold. More generally. a temporal part is no more of type ϕ when the temporal interval is lower than the interval that characterizes the causality interactions between the object parts.
In other terms, if the time span of a temporal part is lower than the inverse of the frequency of interactions between the constituents, then the constituents in such temporal part are not connected. The object is no more an object, neither an item, but simply a collection of fundamental quantum parts.
For this reason, the definition of object is done by considering only item temporal parts, meaning that slicing in time has the lower limit of a selfconnected (i.e. item) entity.
1.0
0.0
NewtonSquareMetrePerSquareKilogram
unit of gravitational constant as product of the derived SI unit newton, the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2 divided by the power of the SI base unit kilogram with the exponent 2
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Newton Square Metre Per Square Kilogram
NewtonSquareMetrePerSquareKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NM2PERKiloGM2
N.m2.kg2
N⋅m²/kg²
unit of gravitational constant as product of the derived SI unit newton, the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2 divided by the power of the SI base unit kilogram with the exponent 2
 QUDT
NewtonianConstantOfGravity
Physical constant in Newton's law of gravitation and in Einstein's general theory of relativity.
NewtonianConstantOfGravity
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/NewtonianConstantOfGravitation
Physical constant in Newton's law of gravitation and in Einstein's general theory of relativity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02695
Pa
ProtactiniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the protactinium atom.
ProtactiniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the protactinium atom.

Minus
Minus
ArithmeticOperator
ArithmeticOperator
Bi
BismuthSymbol
The symbol that stands for the bismuth atom.
BismuthSymbol
The symbol that stands for the bismuth atom.
MathematicalFormula
A mathematical string that express a relation between the elements in one set X to elements in another set Y.
The set X is called domain and the set Y range or codomain.
MathematicalFormula
A mathematical string that express a relation between the elements in one set X to elements in another set Y.
1e06
0.0
CubicCentiMetrePerKelvin
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Centimetre Per Kelvin
CubicCentiMetrePerKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM3PERK
cm3.K1
cm3/K
cm³/K
0,000 001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the SI base unit kelvin
 QUDT
T0 L+3 M0 I0 Θ1 N0 J0
VolumePerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerTemperature'.
VolumePerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'VolumePerTemperature'.
Hs
HassiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the hassium atom.
HassiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the hassium atom.
MetrologicalReference
A reference can be a measurement unit, a measurement procedure, a reference material, or a combination of such (VIM3 1.1 NOTE 2).
A symbolic is recognized as reference unit also if it is not part of a quantity (e.g. as in the sentence "the Bq is the reference unit of Becquerel").
For this reason we can't declare the axiom:
MetrologicalReference SubClassOf: inverse(hasMetrologicalReference) some Quantity
because there exist reference units without being part of a quantity.
This is peculiar to EMMO, where quantities as syntatic entities (explicit quantities) are distinct with quantities as semantic entities (properties).
MetrologicalReference
A reference can be a measurement unit, a measurement procedure, a reference material, or a combination of such (VIM3 1.1 NOTE 2).
A symbolic is recognized as reference unit also if it is not part of a quantity (e.g. as in the sentence "the Bq is the reference unit of Becquerel").
For this reason we can't declare the axiom:
MetrologicalReference SubClassOf: inverse(hasMetrologicalReference) some Quantity
because there exist reference units without being part of a quantity.
This is peculiar to EMMO, where quantities as syntatic entities (explicit quantities) are distinct with quantities as semantic entities (properties).
DampingCoefficient
Inverse of the time constant of an exponentially varying quantity.
DampingCoefficient
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1030524
324
Inverse of the time constant of an exponentially varying quantity.
Rate
Quotient of a quantity by a duration.
Activity
Specific absorption rate (SAR)
Rate of rise
Sampling rate
Modulation rate
Fading rate
Rain rate
Rate
1120318
Quotient of a quantity by a duration.
1.0
0.0
CubicMetrePerKelvin
Cubic metre per Kelvin.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
CubicMetrePerKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERK
m3.K1
m³/K
Cubic metre per Kelvin.
0.0
1.0
KelvinPerSecond
`Kelvin per Second` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time' expressed as K / s.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Kelvin per Second
KelvinPerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/KPERSEC
K.s1
K/s
K/s
`Kelvin per Second` is a unit for 'Temperature Per Time' expressed as K / s.
 QUDT
T1 L0 M0 I0 Θ+1 N0 J0
TemperaturePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'TemperaturePerTime'.
TemperaturePerTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'TemperaturePerTime'.
Density
Quantity representing the spatial distribution of mass in a continuous material.
MassConcentration
MassDensity
Density
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Density
42
910
Mass per volume.
Quantity representing the spatial distribution of mass in a continuous material.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.D01590
Gy
Gray
The SI unit of radiation dose. Radiation carries energy, and when it is absorbed by matter the matter receives this energy. The dose is the amount of energy deposited per unit of mass. One gray is defined to be the dose of one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter, or 100 rad. The unit is named for the British physician L. Harold Gray (19051965), an authority on the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer.
 QUDT
SI unit for absorbed dose.
Gray
A95
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/GRAY
Gy
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Grey
SI unit for absorbed dose.
The SI unit of radiation dose. Radiation carries energy, and when it is absorbed by matter the matter receives this energy. The dose is the amount of energy deposited per unit of mass. One gray is defined to be the dose of one joule of energy absorbed per kilogram of matter, or 100 rad. The unit is named for the British physician L. Harold Gray (19051965), an authority on the use of radiation in the treatment of cancer.
 QUDT
//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grey?oldid=494774160
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.G02696
T3 L+2 M+1 I1 Θ1 N0 J0
ElectricPotentialPerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricPotentialPerTemperature'.
ElectricPotentialPerTemperatureUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricPotentialPerTemperature'.
1e06
μ
Micro
SI prefix who's value is 1e6.
Micro
SI prefix who's value is 1e6.
Sawing
Cutting with circular or straight cutting motion, using a multitoothed tool of small cutting width, the cutting motion being performed by the tool
Process of cutting a workpiece into smaller parts that are either doughter parts, samples (e.g. for testing) or scrap.
Sägen
Sawing
Process of cutting a workpiece into smaller parts that are either doughter parts, samples (e.g. for testing) or scrap.
Machining
A manufacturing in which material is removed from the workpiece in the form of chips.
RemovingChipsFromWorkpiece
Machining
A manufacturing in which material is removed from the workpiece in the form of chips.
0.0001
0.0
SquareMetrePerHectare
Square metres per hectare.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
square metres per hectare
SquareMetrePerHectare
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERHA
m2.har1
m²/ha
Square metres per hectare.
 QUDT
AreaFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two areas.
Unit for solid angle.
AreaFractionUnit
Unit for quantities of dimension one that are the fraction of two areas.
ElectricCurrentDensity
Electric current divided by the crosssectional area it is passing through.
AreicElectricCurrent
CurrentDensity
ElectricCurrentDensity
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ElectricCurrentDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q234072
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211111
68
Electric current divided by the crosssectional area it is passing through.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Current_density
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01928
HardeningByForming
Verfestigen durch Umformen
HardeningByForming
0.0
1.0
PascalSecondPerCubicMetre
`Pascal Second Per Cubic Meter` (Pas/m³) is a unit in the category of Acoustic impedance. It is also known as `pascalsecond/cubic meter`. It has a dimension of ML⁻⁴T⁻¹ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.efunda.com/glossary/units/unitsacoustic_impedancepascal_second_per_cubic_meter.cfm
Pascal Second Per Cubic Metre
PascalSecondPerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PASECPERM3
Pa.s.m3
Pa⋅s/m³
`Pascal Second Per Cubic Meter` (Pas/m³) is a unit in the category of Acoustic impedance. It is also known as `pascalsecond/cubic meter`. It has a dimension of ML⁻⁴T⁻¹ where M is mass, L is length, and T is time. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
T1 L4 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
MassPerQuarticLengthTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerQuarticLengthTime'.
MassPerQuarticLengthTimeUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'MassPerQuarticLengthTime'.
SeebeckCoefficient
Measure of voltage induced by change of temperature.
SeebeckCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SeebeckCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1091448
1221
Measure of voltage induced by change of temperature.
T+7 L3 M2 I+3 Θ0 N0 J0
CubicElectricChargeLengthPerSquareEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CubicElectricChargeLengthPerSquareEnergy'.
CubicElectricChargeLengthPerSquareEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CubicElectricChargeLengthPerSquareEnergy'.
sr
Steradian
Dimensionless measurement unit for solid angle.
Steradian
D27
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/SR
sr
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Steradian
Dimensionless measurement unit for solid angle.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steradian?oldid=494317847
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05971
1.0
0.0
PascalMetrePerSecond
Pascal metre per second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
PascalMetrePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PAMPERSEC
Pa.m.s1
Pa⋅m/s
Pascal metre per second.
1000.0
0.0
PerMilliMetre
Per Millimeter Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /mm.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalMilliMetre
PerMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliM
/mm
mm1
/mm
Per Millimeter Unit is a denominator unit with dimensions /mm.
 QUDT
0.0
1000.0
WattPerLitre
A unit for power per volume quantities.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
WattPerLitre
A unit for power per volume quantities.
Perceptual
The class constrast individuals standing for entities that can stimulate a perception (e.g. a retina impression) to a human being and that are categorized accordingly to human perception mechanisms.
This class is the most general superclass for the categorization of contrasts that are perceivable through a specific humanrelated perception mechanism. This perspective is based on human characterization of perceptions.
A 'Perceptual' can stand for another object in an EMMO described semiotic process (acting as sign or as object), just like a word on a paper (the perceptual object) may refer semiotically to another object. However, a perceptual is not necessarily a 'Sign' (e.g. a line sketched on a blackboard is a recognizable 'Perceptual' but it may stand for nothing).
A 'Perceptual' becomes a semiotic object, when it is part of a 'Semiotic' process described by the ontologist within the EMMO, and it's done always specifying for which interpreter this relation occurs.
A line scratched on a surface.
A sound.
A smell.
The word 'cat' and the sound of the word 'cat' (the first one is graphical and the second acoustical).
The metasemiotic process:
I see a cloud in the sky. Since I'm an EMMO ontologist, I create an individual named Cloud under the 'Perceptual' class, meaning that I recognize the cloud as an object thanks to a specific perceptual channel (e.g. through my eyes). This semiotic process occurs at metalevel: it's how I use the EMMO as tool for a direct representation of the world, understandable by others ontologists.
The semiotic process within EMMO:
My friend looks at the same cloud and says: "It is an elephant".
I use the EMMO to record this experience by declaring:
 my friend as MyFriend individual, belonging to 'Interpreter' classes
 the sound of the word "elephant" as an acoustical perception individual named ElephantWord, belonging to 'Perceptual'
 a relation hasSign between Cloud and ElephantWord, that makes ElephantWord also belonging to 'Sign' class and Cloud belonging also to 'Object' class
 a 'Semiosis' individual called MyFriendElephantCloud that hasParticipant: Cloud, ElephantWord and MyFriend, respectively as object, sign and interpreter.
So, the Perceptual class is here to categorized realworld objects at metalevel using common perceptual channels, for practical ontology usage.
We could have represented the word "elephant" within a physicalistic approach, by identifying it as a pressure wave in the air.
Perceptual
The class constrast individuals standing for entities that can stimulate a perception (e.g. a retina impression) to a human being and that are categorized accordingly to human perception mechanisms.
This class is the most general superclass for the categorization of contrasts that are perceivable through a specific humanrelated perception mechanism. This perspective is based on human characterization of perceptions.
A 'Perceptual' can stand for another object in an EMMO described semiotic process (acting as sign or as object), just like a word on a paper (the perceptual object) may refer semiotically to another object. However, a perceptual is not necessarily a 'Sign' (e.g. a line sketched on a blackboard is a recognizable 'Perceptual' but it may stand for nothing).
A 'Perceptual' becomes a semiotic object, when it is part of a 'Semiotic' process described by the ontologist within the EMMO, and it's done always specifying for which interpreter this relation occurs.
Contrast
A data is a causal object whose variations (nonuniformity) can be recognised and eventually interpreted.
A data can be of different physical types (e.g., matter, wave, atomic excited states).
How the variations are recognised and eventually decoded depends on the interpreting rules that characterise that type of data.
Variations are pure physical variations and do not necessarily possess semantic meaning.
A perspective in which entities are represented according to the variation of their properties.
Luciano Floridi, "Information  A very Short Introduction", Oxford University Press., (2010) ISBN 9780199551378
Dedomena
Pattern
Contrast
A perspective in which entities are represented according to the variation of their properties.
A data is a causal object whose variations (nonuniformity) can be recognised and eventually interpreted.
A data can be of different physical types (e.g., matter, wave, atomic excited states).
How the variations are recognised and eventually decoded depends on the interpreting rules that characterise that type of data.
Variations are pure physical variations and do not necessarily possess semantic meaning.
The covering axiom that defines the data class discriminates within all the possible causal objects between encoded or non encoded.
Permeance
Inverse of the reluctance.
Permeance
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Permeance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q77997985
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1311229
640
Inverse of the reluctance.
ThermalInsulance
Reciprocal of the coefficient of heat transfer.
CoefficientOfThermalInsulance
ThermalInsulance
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalInsulance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2596212
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130441
511
Reciprocal of the coefficient of heat transfer.
ParticleSourceDensity
Quotient of the mean rate of production of particles in a volume, and that volume.
ParticleSourceDensity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ParticleSourceDensity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98915762
1066
Quotient of the mean rate of production of particles in a volume, and that volume.
AngularWaveNumber
In condensed matter physics, quotient of momentum and the reduced Planck constant.
AngularRepetency
AngularWaveNumber
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularWavenumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105542089
129.1
In condensed matter physics, quotient of momentum and the reduced Planck constant.
Wavenumber
The number of waves per unit length along the direction of propagation.
Wavenumber
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Wavenumber
318
The number of waves per unit length along the direction of propagation.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.W06664
DoseEquivalent
A dose quantity used in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
DoseEquivalent
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/DoseEquivalent
1083.1
A dose quantity used in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E02101
T+4 L1 M1 I+2 Θ0 N0 J0
CapacitancePerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CapacitancePerLength'.
CapacitancePerLengthUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'CapacitancePerLength'.
Np
NeptuniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the neptunium atom.
NeptuniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the neptunium atom.
1000000.0
0.0
MegaAmperePerSquareMetre
1 000 000fold of the SI base unit ampere divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Megaampere Per Square Metre
MegaAmperePerSquareMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MegaAPERM2
MA.m2
MA/m²
1 000 000fold of the SI base unit ampere divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 2
 QUDT
T0 L2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricCurrentDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentDensity'.
ElectricCurrentDensityUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentDensity'.
U
UraniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the uranium atom.
UraniumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the uranium atom.
Rh
RhodiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the rhodium atom.
RhodiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the rhodium atom.
Mn
ManganeseSymbol
The symbol that stands for the manganese atom.
ManganeseSymbol
The symbol that stands for the manganese atom.
MaximumBetaParticleEnergy
Maximum kinetic energy of the emitted beta particle produced in the nuclear disintegration process.
MaximumBetaParticleEnergy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MaximumBetaParticleEnergy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q98148038
1033
Maximum kinetic energy of the emitted beta particle produced in the nuclear disintegration process.
0.0
1.0
NewtonMetreSecondPerRadian
Newton metre seconds measured per radian
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Newton metre seconds per radian
NewtonMetreSecondPerRadian
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/NMSECPERRAD
N⋅m⋅s/rad
Newton metre seconds measured per radian
 QUDT
T1 L+2 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
AngularMomentumUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AngularMomentum'.
AngularMomentumUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'AngularMomentum'.
PathLength
Length of a rectifiable curve between two of its points.
ArcLength
PathLength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q7144654
https://dbpedia.org/page/Arc_length
31.7
Length of a rectifiable curve between two of its points.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arc_length
Length
Extend of a spatial dimension.
Length is a nonnegative additive quantity attributed to a onedimensional object in space.
Length
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Length
31.1
Extend of a spatial dimension.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03498
SpeedOfLightInVacuum
The speed of light in vacuum. Defines the base unit metre in the SI system.
SpeedOfLightInVacuum
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/SpeedOfLight_Vacuum
635.2
The speed of light in vacuum. Defines the base unit metre in the SI system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05854
K
PotassiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the potassium atom.
PotassiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the potassium atom.
Na
SodiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the sodium atom.
SodiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the sodium atom.
Pressing
A collective term for the processes in which, during joining, the parts to be joined and any auxiliary parts are essentially only elastically deformed and unintentional loosening is prevented by frictional connection.
Anpressen
Pressing
1.0
0.0
WattPerCubicMetre
SI derived unit watt divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Watt Per Cubic Metre
WattPerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/WPERM3
W.m3
W/m³
SI derived unit watt divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
0.0
1e09
CubicMilliMetre
A metric measure of volume or capacity equal to a cube 1 millimeter on each edge
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Millimetre
CubicMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MilliM3
mm3
mm³
A metric measure of volume or capacity equal to a cube 1 millimeter on each edge
 QUDT
ThermalUtilizationFactor
In an infinite medium, the quotient of the number of thermal neutrons absorbed in a fissionable nuclide or in a nuclear fuel, as specified, and the total number of thermal neutrons absorbed.
ThermalUtilizationFactor
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ThermalUtilizationFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q99197650
1076
In an infinite medium, the quotient of the number of thermal neutrons absorbed in a fissionable nuclide or in a nuclear fuel, as specified, and the total number of thermal neutrons absorbed.
RelativeLinearStrain
Relative change of length with respect the original length.
RelativeLinearStrain
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/LinearStrain
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1990546
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130358
417.2
Relative change of length with respect the original length.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.L03560
0.0
1000000000.0
PerCubicMilliMetre
reciprocal value of the 0.000000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalCubicMilliMetre
PerCubicMilliMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMilliM3
mm3
/mm³
reciprocal value of the 0.000000001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
0.0
1.0
AmpereSquareMetre
The SI unit of electromagnetic moment.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ampere+meter+squared
Ampere Square Metre
AmpereSquareMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/AM2
A.m2
A⋅m²
The SI unit of electromagnetic moment.
 QUDT
1.0
0.0
CubicMetrePerMole
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure. It is equal to the molar mass (M) divided by the mass density. It has the SI unit cubic metres per mole m3/mol, although it is more practical to use the units cubic decimetres per mole dm3/mol for gases and cubic centimetres per mole cm3/mol for liquids and solids.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Metre per Mole
CubicMetrePerMole
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M3PERMOL
m3.mol1
m3/mol
m³/mol
The molar volume, symbol Vm, is the volume occupied by one mole of a substance (chemical element or chemical compound) at a given temperature and pressure. It is equal to the molar mass (M) divided by the mass density. It has the SI unit cubic metres per mole m3/mol, although it is more practical to use the units cubic decimetres per mole dm3/mol for gases and cubic centimetres per mole cm3/mol for liquids and solids.
 QUDT
1.0
0.0
RadianPerSquareSecond
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity. In SI units, it is measured in radians per Square second (rad/s²), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter α.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Radian per Square Second
RadianPerSquareSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/RADPERSEC2
rad.s2
rad/s2
rad/s²
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity. In SI units, it is measured in radians per Square second (rad/s²), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter α.
 QUDT
SecondPolarMomentOfArea
A geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.
SecondPolarMomentOfArea
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SecondPolarMomentOfArea
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1049636
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130330
421.2
A geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.
SecondAxialMomentOfArea
A geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.
SecondAxialMomentOfArea
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/SecondAxialMomentOfArea
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q91405496
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130329
421.1
A geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.
0.0
1.0
SquareMetrePerKilogram
Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) is a unit in the category of Specific Area. It is also known as square meters per kilogram, square metre per kilogram, square metres per kilogram, square meter/kilogram, square metre/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) has a dimension of M1L2 where M is mass, and L is length. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Square Metre per Kilogram
SquareMetrePerKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/M2PERKiloGM
m2.kg1
m²/kg
Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) is a unit in the category of Specific Area. It is also known as square meters per kilogram, square metre per kilogram, square metres per kilogram, square meter/kilogram, square metre/kilogram. This unit is commonly used in the SI unit system. Square Meter Per Kilogram (m2/kg) has a dimension of M1L2 where M is mass, and L is length. This unit is the standard SI unit in this category.
 QUDT
IntentionalProcess
A process occurring with the active participation of an agent that drives the process according to a specific objective (intention).
Project
IntentionalProcess
A process occurring with the active participation of an agent that drives the process according to a specific objective (intention).
1000000000.0
0.0
PerMetreNanoMetre
Per metre and nanometre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
ReciprocalMetreNanoMetre
PerMetreNanoMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/PERMNanoM
m1.nm1
/(m⋅nm)
Per metre and nanometre.
T0 L2 M0 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
PerAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerArea'.
PerAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'PerArea'.
ResonanceEscapeProbability
In an infinite medium, the probability that a neutron slowing down will traverse all or some specified portion of the range of resonance energies without being absorbed.
ResonanceEscapeProbability
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ResonanceEscapeProbability
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q4108072
1068
In an infinite medium, the probability that a neutron slowing down will traverse all or some specified portion of the range of resonance energies without being absorbed.
Probability
Probability is a dimensionless quantity that can attain values between 0 and 1; zero denotes the impossible event and 1 denotes a certain event.
The propability for a certain outcome, is the ratio between the number of events leading to the given outcome and the total number of events.
Probability
Probability is a dimensionless quantity that can attain values between 0 and 1; zero denotes the impossible event and 1 denotes a certain event.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.P04855
ActivityFactor
Activity factors can also be obtained applying Raoult's law or Henry's law.
For substance X in a liquid or a solid mixture; quotient of absolute activity of substance X and the product of absolute activity of the pure substance X at the same temperature and pressure and amountofsubstance fraction of substance X.
ActivityFactor
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q89335167
922
For substance X in a liquid or a solid mixture; quotient of absolute activity of substance X and the product of absolute activity of the pure substance X at the same temperature and pressure and amountofsubstance fraction of substance X.
Activity factors can also be obtained applying Raoult's law or Henry's law.
ActivityCoefficient
A coefficient in thermodynamics used to account for deviation of a mixture of chemical substances from ideal behaviour.
ActivityCoefficient
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/ActivityCoefficient
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q745224
925
A coefficient in thermodynamics used to account for deviation of a mixture of chemical substances from ideal behaviour.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.A00116
Nb
NiobiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the niobium atom.
NiobiumSymbol
The symbol that stands for the niobium atom.
MolarEntropy
Entropy per amount of substance.
MolarEntropy
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MolarEntropy
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q68972876
98
Entropy per amount of substance.
Momentum
Product of mass and velocity.
Momentum
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Momentum
48
Product of mass and velocity.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M04007
T2 L+3 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
ForceAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ForceArea'.
ForceAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ForceArea'.
ReactionSintering
ISO 3252:2019 Powder metallurgy
reaction sintering: process wherein at least two constituents of a powder mixture react during sintering
ReactionSintering
4.848137e06
0.0
DegreePerHour
"Degree per Hour" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/h.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Degree per Hour
DegreePerHour
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DEGPERHR
deg.h1
deg/h
°/h
"Degree per Hour" is an Imperial unit for 'Angular Velocity' expressed as deg/h.
 QUDT
Rolling
Continuous or stepwise pressure forming with one or more rotating tools (rollers), without or with additional tools, e.g. plugs or mandrels, rods, guide tools
Walzen
Rolling
CompressiveForming
Forming of a solid body, whereby the plastic state is essentially brought about by uniaxial or multiaxial compressive stress.
lasciano tensioni residue di compressione
Druckumformen
CompressiveForming
T+1 L+2 M0 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricChargeAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargeArea'.
ElectricChargeAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricChargeArea'.
DeepDrawing
Forming of vessel parts from a flat mould into a threedimensional shape by means of a press and tools, whereby material is neither removed nor added
Tiefziehen
DeepDrawing
mol
Mole
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol−1 and is called the Avogadro number. The amount of substance, symbol n, of a system is a measure of the number of specified elementary entities. An elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an electron, any other particle or specified group of particles.
Mole
C34
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MOL
mol
http://dbpedia.org/resource/Mole_%28unit%29
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance. One mole contains exactly 6.022 140 76 × 1023 elementary entities. This number is the fixed numerical value of the Avogadro constant, NA, when expressed in the unit mol−1 and is called the Avogadro number. The amount of substance, symbol n, of a system is a measure of the number of specified elementary entities. An elementary entity may be an atom, a molecule, an ion, an electron, any other particle or specified group of particles.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mole_(unit)
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03980
T0 L0 M0 I0 Θ0 N+1 J0
AmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Amount'.
AmountUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'Amount'.
HardeningByRolling
Strengthening by rolling is the strengthening of component surfaces by mechanically generating compressive stresses in the component surface and consolidating the material.
VerfestigendurchWalzen
HardeningByRolling
Strengthening by rolling is the strengthening of component surfaces by mechanically generating compressive stresses in the component surface and consolidating the material.
0.0
3600.0
AmpereHourPerKilogram
unit of electric charge relative to mass
AmpereHourPerKilogram
unit of electric charge relative to mass
AngularVelocity
Axial vector quantity describing the rotation around an axis, with magnitude ω=dφ/dt, where dφ is the plane angle change during the infinitesimal time interval with duration dt, and with direction along the axis for which the rotation is clockwise.
AngularVelocity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/AngularVelocity
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130141
https://dbpedia.org/page/Angular_velocity
312
Axial vector quantity describing the rotation around an axis, with magnitude ω=dφ/dt, where dφ is the plane angle change during the infinitesimal time interval with duration dt, and with direction along the axis for which the rotation is clockwise.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angular_velocity
MagneticFieldStrength
Strength of a magnetic field. Commonly denoted H.
MagnetizingFieldStrength
MagneticFieldStrength
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/MagneticFieldStrength
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q28123
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1211156
625
Strength of a magnetic field. Commonly denoted H.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.M03683
1.0
0.0
MetreKilogram
Kilogram metre.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
MetreKilogram
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MKiloGM
m.kg
m⋅kg
Kilogram metre.
T0 L+1 M+1 I0 Θ0 N0 J0
LengthMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LengthMass'.
LengthMassUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'LengthMass'.
H
HydrogenSymbol
The symbol that stands for the hydrogen atom.
HydrogenSymbol
The symbol that stands for the hydrogen atom.
NumberOfEntities
Discrete quantity; number of entities of a given kind in a system.
NumberOfEntities
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q614112
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1120109
91
Discrete quantity; number of entities of a given kind in a system.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04266
PureNumberQuantity
A pure number, typically the number of something.
According to the SI brochure counting does not automatically qualify a quantity as an amount of substance.
This quantity is used only to describe the outcome of a counting process, without regard of the type of entities.
There are also some quantities that cannot be described in terms of the seven base quantities of the SI, but have the nature of a count. Examples are a number of molecules, a number of cellular or biomolecular entities (for example copies of a particular nucleic acid sequence), or degeneracy in quantum mechanics. Counting quantities are also quantities with the associated unit one.
1,
i,
π,
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
PureNumberQuantity
A pure number, typically the number of something.
0.001
0.0
CubicDeciMetrePerCubicMetre
volume ratio consisting of the 0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Cubic Decimetre Per Cubic Metre
CubicDeciMetrePerCubicMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/DeciM3PERM3
dm3.m3
dm3/m3
dm³/m³
volume ratio consisting of the 0.001fold of the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3 divided by the power of the SI base unit metre with the exponent 3
 QUDT
MaterialRelation
A material_relation can e.g. return a predefined number, return a database query, be an equation that depends on other physics_quantities.
An 'equation' that stands for a physical assumption specific to a material, and provides an expression for a 'physics_quantity' (the dependent variable) as function of other variables, physics_quantity or data (independent variables).
The LennardJones potential.
A force field.
An Hamiltonian.
MaterialRelation
An 'equation' that stands for a physical assumption specific to a material, and provides an expression for a 'physics_quantity' (the dependent variable) as function of other variables, physics_quantity or data (independent variables).
Equation
An equation with variables can always be represented as:
f(v0, v1, ..., vn) = g(v0, v1, ..., vn)
where f is the left hand and g the right hand side expressions and v0, v1, ..., vn are the variables.
The class of 'mathematical's that stand for a statement of equality between two mathematical expressions.
2+3 = 5
x^2 +3x = 5x
dv/dt = a
sin(x) = y
Equation
The class of 'mathematical's that stand for a statement of equality between two mathematical expressions.
0.0
1e06
MicroNewtonMetre
0.000001fold of the product out of the derived SI newton and the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Micronewton Metre
MicroNewtonMetre
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/MicroNM
uN.m
μN⋅m
0.000001fold of the product out of the derived SI newton and the SI base unit metre
 QUDT
NuclearMagneton
Absolute value of the magnetic moment of a nucleus.
NuclearMagneton
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q1166093
109.3
Absolute value of the magnetic moment of a nucleus.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.N04236
OneManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 1dimensional Euclidean space.
Onedimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not selfcrossing curves. Twodimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane.
1manifold
OneManifold
A topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of 1dimensional Euclidean space.
Onedimensional manifolds include lines and circles, but not selfcrossing curves. Twodimensional manifolds are also called surfaces. Examples include the plane, the sphere, and the torus, and also the Klein bottle and real projective plane.
Geometrical
A 'graphical' aimed to represent a geometrical concept.
A geometrical object can be expressed in many different forms.
For example, a line can be expressed by:
a) an equation like y=mx+q, which is both an 'equation' and a 'geometrical'
b) a line drawn with a pencil on a paper, which is simply a 'graphical' object
c) a set of axioms, when the properties of a line are inferred by the interpreter reading them, that are both 'graphical' and also 'formula'
The case a) is a geometrical and mathematical, b) is geometrical and pictorial, while c) is geometrical and a composition of idiomatic strings.
Geometrical
A 'graphical' aimed to represent a geometrical concept.
Graphical
A 'Perceptual' which stands for a real world object whose spatial configuration is due to an explicit graphical procedure and shows an identifiable pattern.
This concept includes only things that are purposely created by an agent.
'Graphical' objects include writings, pictures, sketches ...
Graphical
A 'Perceptual' which stands for a real world object whose spatial configuration is due to an explicit graphical procedure and shows an identifiable pattern.
This concept includes only things that are purposely created by an agent.
ElectricResistance
Inverse of 'ElectricalConductance'.
Measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through a material.
Resistance
ElectricResistance
http://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/Resistance
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q25358
646
Measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through a material.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.E01936
1.0
0.0
AmperePerSquareMetreSquareKelvin
Ampere per square metre and square Kelvin.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=31897
AmperePerSquareMetreSquareKelvin
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/APERM2K2
A.m2.K2
A/(m2.K2)
A/m²⋅k²
Ampere per square metre and square Kelvin.
T0 L2 M0 I+1 Θ2 N0 J0
RichardsonConstantUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'RichardsonConstant'.
RichardsonConstantUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'RichardsonConstant'.
T3 L0 M+1 I1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricPotentialPerAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricPotentialPerArea'.
ElectricPotentialPerAreaUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricPotentialPerArea'.
0.0001
0.0
SquareCentiMetrePerSecond
Square centimetre per second.
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
SquareCentiMetrePerSecond
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/CentiM2PERSEC
cm2.s1
cm²/s
Square centimetre per second.
TightlyCoupledModelsSimulation
A simulation in which more than one model are solved together with a coupled method.
Solving within the same linear system the discretised form of the pressure and momentum equation for a fluid, using the ideal gas law as material relation for connecting pressure to density.
TightlyCoupledModelsSimulation
A simulation in which more than one model are solved together with a coupled method.
QueryLanguage
A construction language used to make queries in databases and information systems.
SQL, SPARQL
QueryLanguage
A construction language used to make queries in databases and information systems.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_language
44.955908
21
ScandiumAtom
Atom subclass for scandium.
ScandiumAtom
Atom subclass for scandium.
GravitySintering
ISO 3252:2019 Powder metallurgy
loosepowder sintering, gravity sintering: sintering of uncompacted powder
LoosepowderSintering
PressurelessSintering
GravitySintering
Sintering
Sintering is the process of forming a solid mass of material through heat and pressure without melting to the point of liquefaction. This process involves the atoms in materials diffusing across the particle boundaries and fusing together into one piece.
Sintering occurs naturally in mineral deposits, and is used as a manufacturing process for materials including ceramics, metals and plastics.
Because the sintering temperature doesn’t reach the materials’ melting point, it is often used for materials with high melting points, such as molybdenum and tungsten.
ISO 3252:2019 Powder metallurgy
sintering: thermal treatment of a powder or compact, at a temperature below the melting point of the main constituent, for the purpose of increasing its strength by the metallurgical bonding of its particles
ISO/ASTM TR 52906:2022 Additive manufacturing
sintering: process of heating a powder metal compact to increase density and/or improve mechanical properties via solid state diffusion
https://www.twiglobal.com/technicalknowledge/faqs/whatissintering
Sintern
Sintering
Sintering is the process of forming a solid mass of material through heat and pressure without melting to the point of liquefaction. This process involves the atoms in materials diffusing across the particle boundaries and fusing together into one piece.
Sintering occurs naturally in mineral deposits, and is used as a manufacturing process for materials including ceramics, metals and plastics.
Because the sintering temperature doesn’t reach the materials’ melting point, it is often used for materials with high melting points, such as molybdenum and tungsten.
FineStructureConstant
A fundamental physical constant characterizing the strength of the electromagnetic interaction between elementary charged particles.
FineStructureConstant
http://qudt.org/vocab/constant/FineStructureConstant
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.F02389
CommandLanguage
An interpreted computer language for job control in computing.
Unix shell.
Batch programming languages.
CommandLanguage
An interpreted computer language for job control in computing.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_language
SolubilityProduct
For the dissociation of a salt AmBn → mA + nB, the solubility product is KSP = am(A) ⋅ an(B), where a is ionic activity and m and n are the stoichiometric numbers.
Product of the ion activities of the ions resulting from the dissociation of a solute in a saturated solution, raised to powers equal to their stoichiometric numbers.
SolubilityProductConstant
SolubilityProduct
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q11229788
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1140123
Product of the ion activities of the ions resulting from the dissociation of a solute in a saturated solution, raised to powers equal to their stoichiometric numbers.
https://doi.org/10.1351/goldbook.S05742
IsentropicCompressibility
Quantity characterizing the relative variation of volume V with pressure p at constant entropy.
The coherent SI unit of isentropic compressibility is pascal to the power minus one, 1/Pa.
IsentropicCompressibility
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/IsentropicCompressibility
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2990695
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130432
55.2
Quantity characterizing the relative variation of volume V with pressure p at constant entropy.
The coherent SI unit of isentropic compressibility is pascal to the power minus one, 1/Pa.
NominalProperty
"Property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, where the property has no magnitude."
"A nominal property has a value, which can be expressed in words, by alphanumerical codes, or by other means."
International vocabulary of metrology (VIM)
An 'ObjectiveProperty' that cannot be quantified.
CFC is a 'sign' that stands for the fact that the morphology of atoms composing the microstructure of an entity is predominantly Cubic Face Centered
A color is a nominal property.
Sex of a human being.
NominalProperty
An 'ObjectiveProperty' that cannot be quantified.
nominal property
UnsignedLongData
A data representing 64bit nonnegative integer number, 0...18446744073709551615.
https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema112/#unsignedLong
UnsignedLongData
A data representing 64bit nonnegative integer number, 0...18446744073709551615.
NonNegativeIntegerData
A data representing an integer number >= 0.
https://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema112/#nonNegativeInteger
NonNegativeIntegerData
A data representing an integer number >= 0.
RichardsonConstant
Parameter in the expression for the thermionic emission current density J for a metal in terms of the thermodynamic temperature T and work function.
RichardsonConstant
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RichardsonConstant
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q105883079
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130630
1226
Parameter in the expression for the thermionic emission current density J for a metal in terms of the thermodynamic temperature T and work function.
ComputerScience
A wellformed formula in computer science may be or not be interpreted by a computer. For example pseudocode is only intended for human consumption.
A wellformed formula that follows the syntactic rules of computer science.
ComputerScience
A wellformed formula that follows the syntactic rules of computer science.
A wellformed formula in computer science may be or not be interpreted by a computer. For example pseudocode is only intended for human consumption.
NuclearSpinQuantumNumber
Quantum number related to the total angular momentum, J, of a nucleus in any specified state, normally called nuclear spin.
NuclearSpinQuantumNumber
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/NuclearSpinQuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q97577403
1013.7
Quantum number related to the total angular momentum, J, of a nucleus in any specified state, normally called nuclear spin.
QuantumNumber
Number describing a particular state of a quantum system.
QuantumNumber
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/QuantumNumber
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q232431
1013.1
Number describing a particular state of a quantum system.
EmpiricalFormula
An expression that provide information about the element type of a compound and their relative ratio.
Hydrogen peroxide is HO
EmpiricalFormula
An expression that provide information about the element type of a compound and their relative ratio.
ChemicalFormula
A chemical formula may also include other symbols such as parentheses, plus and minus signs, brackets
A symbolic construct that provides informations about the chemical proportions of the elements that constitute a chemical compound or a specific molecule.
ChemicalFormula
A symbolic construct that provides informations about the chemical proportions of the elements that constitute a chemical compound or a specific molecule.
SystemUnit
A unit that belongs to one or more unit systems.
SystemUnit
A unit that belongs to one or more unit systems.
0.0
1.0
HertzPerVolt
In the Hertz per Volt standard the frequency of the note is directly related to the voltage. A pitch of a note goes up one octave when its frequency doubles, meaning that the voltage will have to double for every octave rise. Depending on the footage (octave) selected, nominally one volt gives 1000Hz, two volts 2000Hz and so on. In terms of notes, bottom C would be 0.25 volts, the next C up would be 0.5 volts, then 1V, 2V, 4V, 8V for the following octaves. This system was used mainly by Yamaha and Korg.
 QUDT
http://qudt.org/2.1/vocab/unit
Hertz per Volt
HertzPerVolt
http://qudt.org/vocab/unit/HZPERV
Hz.V1
Hz/V
In the Hertz per Volt standard the frequency of the note is directly related to the voltage. A pitch of a note goes up one octave when its frequency doubles, meaning that the voltage will have to double for every octave rise. Depending on the footage (octave) selected, nominally one volt gives 1000Hz, two volts 2000Hz and so on. In terms of notes, bottom C would be 0.25 volts, the next C up would be 0.5 volts, then 1V, 2V, 4V, 8V for the following octaves. This system was used mainly by Yamaha and Korg.
 QUDT
T+2 L2 M1 I+1 Θ0 N0 J0
ElectricCurrentPerEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentPerEnergy'.
ElectricCurrentPerEnergyUnit
The class of units with dimensionality 'ElectricCurrentPerEnergy'.
RelativeHumidity
Ratio of the partial pressure p of water vapour in moist air to its partial pressure psat at saturation, at the same temperature φ = p/psat.
The relative humidity is often expressed in per cent.
RelativeHumidity
https://qudt.org/vocab/quantitykind/RelativeHumidity
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q2499617
https://www.electropedia.org/iev/iev.nsf/display?openform&ievref=1130465
533
Ratio of the partial pressure p of w